1.1 understandings and personal attributes-that make graduates more

1.1 
Introduction

In today’s dynamic
business era, augmenting employability skills in management
education is   considered as a
major challenge by all the educational institutions. Management education
focuses on developing a broad range of managerial knowledge and abilities. More
emphasis is given to the performance of the candidates on the job and this
requires a set of skills that match  the
job. In addition to subject-specific job, students are required to hone their
team building and communication skills. This paper sheds light on the existing
research results, practices of employability skills and presents the review on
aspects like Employability definitions, employability skills, employer needs
and expectations harmonizing employer needs and the nature of employability.
India witnessed a colossal change in its educational system in the 21st century. Many of the management institutions are still
following the traditional method of teaching. The need of the hour is to bridge
the gap between academia and industry. Management education in India is not
very old, after the establishment of the IITs, there was dire need for similar
establishments in the field of management education. Thus came into existence
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), followed soon after by one in
Kolkata

                                                                                      

 

 

Definitions
of Employability

 

A widely accepted
definition of employability is a set of achievements-skills, understandings and
personal attributes-that make graduates more likely to gain employment and be
successful in their chosen occupations, which benefits themselves.

 

Yorke & Knight  define employability as a set of
achievements-skills, understandings and personal attributes-that make graduates
more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations,
which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy.

 

Employability from the
perspective of HEIs is therefore about producing graduates who are capable and
able, and this impact upon all areas of university life, in terms of the
delivery of academic programmes and extra curricula activities. Fundamentally
then, employability is about learning, learning how to learn and employability
is not a product.

 

Employability
Skills

 

Employability skills
are the non-technical skills and knowledge necessary for effective participation
in the workforce. They can include skills such as communication,
self-management, problem solving and teamwork. They are also sometimes referred
to as generic skills, capabilities, enabling skills or key competencies. New
Employability Skills Framework The Australian Government
is funding the development of a new framework for employability skills. A new
name-Core Skills for Employment has been proposed and is currently being
considered. The framework is aimed at those preparing people for work. It will
have broad application across all ages and education, training and employment
sectors, and will include elements addressing skills development and assessment
Recommendations of Learning Skills & Numeracy (LSN) With the aim of
supporting this area of important work, this report makes four recommendations
as potential next steps.

·
The provision of clear
information, advice and guidance to raise the aspirations of people entering
employment and in employment towards learning and skills

·
The development of a
single generic employability framework that addresses generic transferable
employability skills between sectors, jobs, markets and regions

·
The adoption of a
„talent? agenda that builds on positive, rather than deficit, models of initial,
formative and summative assessment

·
Approach the current
vocational reform as an opportunity to develop innovative and

creative approaches to
embedding and measuring „employability skills? and reconnect

employers, individuals
and education Providers

 

Universal
Employability Skills

·        
Communication
Skills

·        
Teamwork Skills

·        
Self-Motivated/Ability
to work with little or no supervision

·        
Problem-Solving/Decision-Making,
Reasoning/Creativity skills

·        
Dedication/Hardworking/Work
Ethic

·        
Planning/Organizing
Skills

·        
Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility

·        
Adaptability

·        
Availability/Flexibility

·        
Honesty/Integrity/Morality—Character
Counts!

·        
Computer/Technical
Skills

·        
Interpersonal
Abilities

·        
Self
Presentation Skills

·        
Multi-Tasking
Skills

·        
Positive
Attitude/Motivation/Energetic

·        
Self-Confidence

·        
Leadership/Management
Skills

·        
Multicultural
Sensitivity/Awareness

·        
Loyalty

·        
Professionalism

·        
Willingness  to Learn

·        
Customer Service
Skills

·        
Common Sense

 

Employability

 

·        
Having and using
your life skills and abilities to be hired and stay hired.

·        
Most people
change careers at least 5-7 times in their lives. Skills developed in one job
can be used in different lines of work or industries.

·        
 Present positive qualities

·        
Communicate
effectively with ALL employers, co-workers, and consumers (i.e. customers,
clients, patients, users, etc.)

·        
Meet your
responsibilities at work

 

What
are employability skills?

Knowledge
in a specific career.

E.g:

·        
An electrician
knows wiring

·        
An auto mechanic
knows engine repair

Decision
Making – Shows you know how to evaluate options.

Problem
Solving – Shows leadership role to find a positive solution.

 Goal Setting – Shows you know how to set up a
plan to achieve specific goals

 

1.2 
Objectives

·        
To understand Concept
of Employability skills.

·        
To identify the
importance of employability skills from the perspective of industrial
employers.

·        
b. To determine
differences in the importance of employability skills from the perspective of
employers based on company size, company type and ownership status of the
company.

 

1.3  Rationale

The employers rated the
importance of employability skills at a high level. This shows that all
employers, placing employability skills as must be owned by all graduates to
enable them to compete in the global market. The authorities of education
institution should enhance the employability skills of the students either
through the professional development of lecturers, curriculum and co
curriculum. people in particular the
country in general.

Research
Methodology

This study used a descriptive
research design with quantitative approached. This study aims to identify the
importance of employability skills from the perspective of industrial
employers.Secondary Data is collected from the books, publication, Records of
the companies, Websites.

 

1.6 Need of Employability Skills

 

·        
Employability
as a Performance Indicator Employability
is frequently spoken about in relation to the ranking of institutions with the
University league tables, in which Employability is used as a performance
indicator relating to the employment rates of graduates as measured and defined
by the HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE).

 

·        
Employability
as a Commodity The concept of Employability as a
commodity is closely linked to government policy in which graduates represent a
valuable resource in the increasingly knowledge based economy. The ability of
graduates to be able to respond to the changing needs of a rapidly developing
labour market is seen as vital for economic growth.

·        
Employability
as Skills, Knowledge and Attributes
The definition of employability that underpins the work of the Higher Education
Academy and ESECT is: “A set of skills, knowledge and personal attributes
that make an individual more likely to secure and be successful in their chosen
occupation.

·        
Employability
to meet Employer Needs Increasingly,
employers are demanding skills from graduates which are outside the subject
area of their course of study in Higher Education. Indeed, some employers have
placed less importance on graduates’ actual degree discipline in favour of the
more generic skills which they have acquired: Employers generally see a
graduate’s achievements related to the subject discipline as necessary but not
sufficient for them to be recruited

·        
Employability
Skills in the Context of this Guide
This guide focuses on the skills set which has been identified as a fundamental
element of graduate employability and takes its point of reference from the key
skills framework:

 

·        
Written communication

·        
Oral communication

·        
Group work

·        
Problem solving

·        
Application of number
(numeracy).

 

·        
Employability Skills – Skills You Need for a Job

For many people today, a career for life is no longer an
option. Most people will hold jobs with a variety of employers and move across
different employment sectors through their working life.

We all need to be flexible in our working patterns and be
prepared to change jobs and/or sectors if we believe there are better
opportunities elsewhere.

In order to be flexible we need a set
of ‘transferable skills’ – skills that
are not specific to one particular career path but are generic across all
employment sectors.

 

1.7.
Importance of Employability Skills

 

Employability Skills
are essential features of each of the qualifications available in the Framework
and therefore consideration must be given to the ways in which they can be
addressed when designing learning activities and assessment instruments. It is
important for trainers and assessors to know that Employability Skills
Summaries:

• provide examples of
how each skill is applicable to the job roles covered by the qualification.

• contain general
information which is further explained as measurable outcomes of performance in
the units of competency in each qualification.

• have varying detail
depending on the range of job roles covered by the qualification in question.

• are not exhaustive
lists of qualification requirements or checklists of performance (which are
separate assessment tools that should be designed by trainers and assessors
after analysis at the unit level).

 • contain information that may also assist in
building learners’ understanding of industry and workplace expectations

1.7 Conclusion. 

While there are
variations in the classification of employability, there is a broad
understanding of what qualities, characteristics, skills and knowledge
constitute employability in general and for graduates in particular. Employers
expect graduates to have the technical and discipline competences from their
degrees but require graduates to demonstrate a range of broader skills and
attributes that include team-working, communication, leadership, critical
thinking, problem solving and often managerial abilities or potential. It is
arguable that specific definitions are less important than an agreed focus on approaches
which foster transferable skills and the attributes that will enable graduates
to find appropriate employment, progress in their work and thus facilitate the
success of their organisations and contribute to society and the economy.
Perhaps above all, the literature and our own findings have overwhelmingly
highlighted the importance of placements, internships and workbased learning
opportunities as an effective way of providing university students with
relevant employment skills, knowledge and awareness of employer culture. The
literature on graduate employability, and our research, both reveal that while
there have been important developments in terms of activity across HEIs to
address graduate employability, the extent to which this is happening and the
level to which it is embedded across the sector is uncertain. This is despite
developments in government policy to encourage HEIs and employers to work
together to develop approaches measures that contribute to graduate
employability. While there are numerous examples of employers and HEIs working
to promote graduate employability in the literature and in our research, there
are still issues and barriers between employers and many of those responsible
for HEI policy, particularly in terms of differences in mindset, expectations
and priorities. There are concerns from some academics about employability
measures in their universities diminishing the academic integrity of higher
education provision. There is also frustration from employers about courses not
meeting their needs. However, there appears to be no fundamental reason why
HEIs and employers cannot reach a consensus on educational approaches that
promote employability. Relatively little is known about the impact of HEI
programmes and measures to promote graduates’ employability skills and
attributes. Systematic evaluations of such measures appear scarce. This is
particularly true in understanding the long term benefits to graduates.