1.3. the high intensity of overlapping between the

1.3. Green EnergyThe implementation of
renewable energy became a core factor of the process of preventing climate
change while maintaining the sufficient supply of produced to energy to cover
the global demand. However, such energy sources require certain technologies
that have inauspicious effects and drawbacks which are always placed on top,
especially when observing the interconnection between climate and ecology and
the impact of such techniques on the global environment. In this study, we will
focus on the three dominant renewable energy types, their ecological effects
and certain methodologies to prevent such effects, putting in mind the immense
and fast global expansion of such technologies. These types are hydro, solar
photovoltaic and wind. Regarding the wind energy, it has the least impacts and
the easiest to mitigate. Solar energy is considered favorable compared to wind,
only it is designed and handled the right way. For the hydropower, it is
considered the one with greatest risks.1.3.1. The Rise of Renewables

As it was mentioned before, the
augmentation of the global population alongside with the increase in the
consumption rates have consequently raised the global demand in energy, which
in turned intensified the environmental impact and especially the climate.
Hence, a predetermined shift to clean energy sources is a must to overcome both
the demand and damage. As of 2016, 176 countries have placed their goals to
acquire certain proportions of their consumed energy from clean sources, (Renewables, 2017). These
steps are so praiseworthy over the majority of such countries, but the
continuous development of clean energy is heavily affecting the environment and
biodiversity, (Butt, 2013), and this
is obvious in diverse societies where population and the economy are massively
proliferating, (State of the Tropics, 2014). The world
attention has been attracted to the damaging effects of the conventional
non-renewable energy sources, with fossil fuels on top of them, (Finer, 2015).Moving to
renewable energy sources, despite having much lower carbon emissions, they are
the reason of notable damages to the conservation of terrestrial biodiversity,
thus they are considered more land-use intensive, (Evans, 2009), (Santangeli, 2016) and (Brook, 2014).Taking a deep
look among each of wind turbines, solar panels and bioenergy that is generated
from the perpetual Miscanthus grass, it showed off that bioenergy had the
largest risk to biodiversity due to the high intensity of overlapping between
the lands producing Miscanthus, and the high biodiversity habitants, (Santangeli, 2016). From the aspect
of operational efficiency, it was found that wind power is the most sustainable
renewable energy, where hydropower comes after it. This aspect takes into
account the price of electricity, efficiency of energy conversion, the needs of
water and land, the rate of emission of greenhouse gas and the environmental
and social impacts, (Evans, 2009). On a side-note,
this study doesn’t account for bioenergy that is mainly related to agricultural
production, or even geothermal energy among renewable energy sources, yet it is
only concerned with solar photovoltaic, wind and hydropower, the differences in
the infrastructural developments for each one of them, the impact of each
source on the ecological health and biodiversity, and both the current and
estimated growth rates of each type, (Scharlemann, 2008).

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1.3.2. Hydropower:
The Largest Renewable Energy Source:Statistics of
electricity generation in 2015 showed that 16.6% of the total global
electricity was generated by hydropower, which represents 70% of that produced
by renewable energy. It mainly depends on the flow stream of water, which can
generate remarkable quantities of energy, as water density is almost 800 times
that of air. Hydroelectric plants works on the principle of deriving kinetic
energy from the river flow. Water energy has many forms and means of usage. In
the past, hydropower was produced by building large dams on flowing water
streams, which are still found in third world countries. China is considered
the biggest hydroelectric producer in the world, accounting to the largest
hydroelectric dam in the world; the Three Gorges Dam, in addition to more than
45,000 small hydro-systems installed on small rivers, (Armaroli & Balzani, 2016). Other considerable
dams in the world such as the Itaipu Dam which was built in 1984 by Brazil and
Paraguay, and the Chief Joseph Dam in the United States which was established
on the Columbia River. The hydroelectric power is generated in about 150
countries, where 32% of the global hydropower produced in 2010 was contributed
by the Asia-Pacific region.Among the leading countries in the generation of
electricity from renewable sources, the top 50 countries are mostly using
hydroelectric generation, with China sitting on top as the largest producer,
generating 721 TWh in 2010 which represented about 17% of the domestic use of
electricity. Currently, there are 3 major hydroelectricity stations generating
more than 10 GW; the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam on the border
between Brazil and Paraguay, and Guri Dam in Venezuela, (Cavallaro, 2009). In
addition to the conventional hydroelectric generation techniques, there are two
forms of hydropower which are considered of high future potential but they are
yet to be used commercially. These methods are the wave and tidal powers. The
implementation of the tidal power is demonstrated in the project of the Ocean
Renewable Power Company, which is established on the coast of Maine. It is
connected to an electric grid that employs the tidal power of the Fundy Bay,
which is known as the highest tidal flow spot worldwide. One last technique
that is no longer practically economic, is the ocean thermal energy conversion,
which depends on its operation on the difference in temperature between the surface
and deep waters.