1. industry. With the help of technology development,

1.      Introduction-

There
has been number of changes taking place in India. Technological development is
taking place in all industries including e-commerce industry. With the help of technology
development, launch of Digital India scheme, cut down of 4G internet access
plans and increase in disposable income of a common man by annual budget 2017-18
as all these spells out multitude opportunities for e-commerce websites. The
use of e-commerce is increasing in India due to rapidly increasing Internet
access availability. It has been reported by NASSCOM that revenue of India’s
e-commerce sector is expected to cross USD 200 billion in 2030 by adding more
than 2% contribution in GDP. According to the report, India is emerging as an ideal
e-commerce market among the developing countries of Asia. At International
level, customer’s loyalty strongly related with profitability and long term
firms growth. (Reichheld, 1995). There is drastic change in profits of the firm
if it is successful in retaining even small number of customers (Huffmire,
2001). So, it is important to make out the components having impact on customer’s
loyalty.

E-Retailers face
stringent competition as Internet competitors are just a click away. It is a
big challenge for retailer to attract and retain customers. By increasing
customer satisfaction and trust, loyalty of customer can be maximized. This paper
concerned about making out e-service quality impact on customer satisfaction,
trust and loyalty.

Various empirical
studies have been made on customer satisfaction, loyalty and trust in different
countries. There is scope for such study in India. This paper makes significant
contribution to literature of E-commerce explaining how e-service quality have
implication on e-trust, e-satisfaction and consequently on e-loyalty. In this
study, four key dimensions of e-service quality-personal needs, website
organization, user friendliness and website efficiency considered, influencing
e-loyalty. Thus, knowledge of these relationships will help marketer in
developing competitive strategies and achieve competitive advantage.

2.     
 Literature Review –

a.       E-Commerce
service quality-

E-service
quality is defined as a consumer’s overall evaluation and judgment on the
quality of the services that is delivered through the internet (Bauer et al.,
2006; Liao et al., 2011; Parasuraman et al., 2005; Santos, 2003; Zeithaml et
al., 2002).In academic literature, no consensus has been derived on e-service
quality dimensions. For evaluating service quality of e-commerce websites, many
researchers have formed scales. A rating scale called WebQual by Lociacono et
al. was based on 12 dimensions. Another 9 item scale on four dimensions –ease
of use, aesthetic design, processing speed and security called SITEQUAL
developed by Yoo and Donthu. Another model called eTailQ, 14 items based on 4
dimensions- Website design, reliability, privacy, customer service. Herington
and Weaven (2009) found four dimensions of e-ServQual: personal needs, site
organization, user friendliness, and efficiency; and all factors found as an
important measure of e-service quality in context of online banking industry. In this paper, the perception of e-commerce customers is
used as basis for measuring e-service quality. The dimensions of e-commerce
service quality adapted from literature of Herington and Weaven (2009) and Ho
and Lin (2010).

b.      
E- Customer Satisfaction-

Customer
Satisfaction is meeting of the customer’s expectation on products and services
(Oliver,1980). If product/service performance exceeds perceived performance,
customers are satisfied otherwise dissatisfied (Fullerton
and Taylor, 2015; Oliver, 1993; Rust and Zahorik, 1993;
Sharifi and Esfidani, 2014). There has been no consensus on the number of
variables of e-satisfaction. In this paper,
the perception of e-commerce customers is used as basis for measuring e-service
quality. The dimensions of e- satisfaction adapted from literature of  Amin et al., 2013; Cronin and Taylor, 1992;
Herington and Weaven, 2009; Ribbink et al., 2004 which is restricted to
transaction-specific judgement definition not to the cumulative satisfaction.

c.       E-Trust-

Trust
is the willingness of customer to rely on exchange party in whom one has
confidence (Moorman et al.,1992). E-Trust is confidence the customer have in
e-exchange channels. In this study, dimensions for e-trust adopted from
literature of Dina Ribbink et.al (2004).

d.      E-Loyalty-

As
per literature, there are two ways to measures customer loyalty- Behavioral and
Attitudinal loyalty (Ball et al., 2004;
Jacoby and Kyner, 1973; Kandampully et al., 2015). Anderson and Srinivasan
(2003) defined e-customer loyalty as tendency of customers to revisit specific
website and make purchase in future. In this study,
dimensions for e-loyalty adopted from literature of (Amin et al., 2013; Ramseook-Munhurrun and Naidoo, 2011;
Zeithaml et al., 1996).

3.     
Objectives-

Not
much research has been found from literature review in field of E-commerce
service quality exploring customer’s e-trust, e-satisfaction and e-loyalty in
Punjab region and Chandigarh. E- Commerce is fundamentally changing the way of
reatiling. Under such situation, it is essential for e-tailers to study the
factors influencing customers trust, satisfaction and loyalty, so that they can
sustain for a longer run. The purpose of this paper is to explore the various
e-commerce service quality factors and how these certain antecedents
influencing the customer’s trust, satisfaction and loyalty. The objective of
the study are-

a.       To
identify which factor of e-service quality have strong influence

b.      To
identify the factors of e-service quality that motivates customers to have
trust on E-Commerce.

c.       To
identify the factors of e-service quality that give satisfaction to E-commerce
customer.

d.       To identify the factors of e-service quality that
impact customers loyalty towards E-Commerce

e.       To
identify whether e-satisfaction drive e-trust.

4.     
Hypothesis
Development-

a.       E-commerce
service quality and e- satisfaction

The
relation between e-service quality and e-satisfaction is a subject of academic
debate. Some academician described service quality as antecedent of customer
satisfaction while some believe customer satisfaction as antecedent of service
quality. Ma et al. conducted a study and found that e-service quality
dimensions- efficiency, interactivity, security, information, ease of use and
content affect e-customer satisfaction. Ibok et al. studied 5 major e-service
quality dimension that affect customer satisfaction in Nigeria. Thus, positive
customer perception about the various e-service quality will result in
e-satisfaction (Carlson and O’Cass,
2011; Cristobal et al., 2007;; Singh and Kaur, 2013). E-commerce service
quality will also lead customers to visit again and have positive WOM (Carlson
and O’Cass, 2010). We also expect that trustworthy customer in e-commerce will
be affected positively by e-service quality.Thus, hypothesis proposed are-

H1: E-Service Quality has a significant positive association
with e-customer satisfaction

H2: E-Service Quality has a significant positive association
with e-customer trust

H3: E-Service Quality has a significant positive association
with e-customer loyalty

b.     
E-Customer satisfaction and E-loyalty

Many
studies have proved that satisfaction has a positive relation on building long
term relation of customer with other exchange partner, creating customer
loyalty. (Amin et al., 2013; Bloemer et al.,
1998; Cronin et al., 1992; Kassim and Abdullah, 2008; Zeithaml et al., 1996).
If the customer is dissatisfied with service provided, will lead to negative
WOM (Kandampully et al., 2015). Thus the hypothesis proposed is-

H4: E-customer satisfaction has a significant positive
association with e-customer loyalty

c.      
E-trust and E-loyalty-

Trust
is an- important factor impacting e-loyalty along with e-satisfaction (Reichheld et al., 2000).Trust  helps in building loyalty when the perceived
level of risk is high (Srinivasan and Anderson, 2002), increased spending. So
it can be expected that-

H5- E-trust has a significant positive association with
e-customer loyalty

d.     
E- satisfaction and e-trust

Customer
satisfaction  is related to trust closely (Geyskens et al., 1996) and 
is an measure of trust (Garbarino and Johnson, 1999; Selnes,1998).  It can be expected that-

H6- E-customer satisfaction has a significant
positive association with e-trust

                       

Figure
I Conceptual Model showing hypotheses                                   

 

5.     
Methodology

a.       Data
Collection Process-

Data
was collected through structured questionnaire from actual customers who had
experienced with online shopping. Questionnaires were sent to 200 persons via e-mail,
stated the objective of this study and included a hyperlink to the
questionnaire. This study was done in Bathinda, Talwandi Sabo and Chandigarh
based on accessibility in the month of September, October and November, 2017.
The purpose of selecting such areas is to enhance generalizability of the
results and representation of online customers.

b.      Questionnaire
Design-

Questionnaire
consists of two parts. First part concerned with the personal information of
e-commerce users. Information asked in first part concerned with their gender,
their age and their qualification. Second part consists of seven dimensions
contain 29 questions.

 In the second part, E-Service quality was
measured by considering variables from literature of Herington and Weaven (2009) and Ho and Lin (2010). The
dimensions of e-satisfaction adapted from literature of  Amin et al., 2013; Herington and Weaven,
2009; Ribbink et al., 2004) and dimensions for e-loyalty adopted
from literature of (Amin et al., 2013;
Ramseook-Munhurrun and Naidoo, 2011; Zeithaml et al., 1996).
Dimensions for e-trust adopted from literature of Dina Ribbink et.al (2004). Items
in the questionnaire were 29 measured on likert scale ranging from 1(Strongly
disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree)

A
total of 200 questionnaire sent through mail out of which 140 returned, 7 were
incomplete. Only 133 were useful for analysis resulting 66.5% response rate. Table
1 represents the demographic profile of respondents stating 45.1% male user of
E-commerce and 54.9% accounts for females. 

Construct

Classification
 

Number

%

Gender

Male
Female

60
73

45.1
54.9

Age

15-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55+

22
39
18
30
24

16.54
29.32
13.53
22.56
18.05

Qualification
 
 
 
 
N=133
Table 1-
Demographic Profile

Secondary
Sr. Secondary
Graduation
Post Graduation
and more

12
28
11
82

9.02
21.05
8.27
61.66
 

 

6.     
Model
Analysis-

This
study’s conceptual model hypotheses were tested using SPSS19.

Table
II. Standardized factor loadings, average variance extracted (AVE) and
composite reliability (CR)

Variables

Items                                                                                     Loading

AVE

CR

Personal Need
Cronbach alpha=.870
 

I
feel completely safe when making transactions on the
website
of online banks                                                                      .705
I
feel that my personal needs have been met when using
the
website of online banks                                                              
.896
The
website of online banks provides me with information and products according
to my preferences                                               
.968

.7456

.8963

Site Organization
Cronbach alpha=.799

The
website of online banks is simple to use                                     .988
The
website of online banks is well organized     
                            .636
I
can get on to the website of online banks quickly                          .763
Website
of online banks design is user friendly                                .650                                       

.6983

.9004

User Friendliness
Cronbach alpha=.805

The
website of online banks is user friendly                                      .724
Navigation
on the website of online banks is easy                            .988
The
website of online banks launches and runs right away               .788
Pages
at the website of online banks do not freeze                            .642

.6334

.8704

Website efficiency
Cronbach alpha=.815

It
is easy to find what I need on the website of online banks            .988
It
is easy to get anywhere on the website of online banks                .694
 I can complete a transaction quickly on the
website                         .702

.6517

.8441

Customer Satisfaction
Cronbach alpha=.798

I
am generally pleased with this bank’s online services                    .705
Satisfaction
I am very satisfied with these bank’s online services    .997
I
am happy with this online bank                                                      
.988
The
website of online banks is simple to use                                     .705                    
I
am satisfied with overall online bank’s products and services        .997

.7916

.9487

Customer Trust
Cronbach
alpha=.766

I
am prepared to give private information to online companies        .888
I
am willing to give my credit card number                                       .612
It
is not a problem to pay in advance for purchased products over the internet                                                                                               .696
Online
companies are professionals in their branch                          .823
Online
companies intend to fulfill their promises                              .790

.589

.8762

Customer Loyalty
Cronbach alpha=.898
 
 

I
will recommend the online banking to other people                        .969
Loyalty
I prefer the online banking above others                              .994
 I would like to say positive things to other
people                            .969
I
would recommend online banking to someone who seeks advice
I
intend to continue using the online banking                                    .994                                                    

.9634

.9906

 

To
check the internal reliability test for each dimension, all dimensions have
cronbach alpha greater than .7 indicating good reliability as suggested by Nunnally and Bernstein (1994). The value of AVE
and CR exceeds the acceptable criteria of .5 and .7 respectively as given by
Fornell and Larcker, 1981 for testing convergent validity. For testing discriminant
validity, procedure given by Fornell and Larcker (1981) was used in which
square root of AVE higher than correlation estimated between factors. Table III
shows that square root of AVE higher than correlation.

                                                        Table III- Discriminant
Validity

 

Loyalty

Trust

Satisfaction

Personal Need

Site Organization

User Friendliness

Efficiency

Loyalty

.9815

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trust

.208

.7675

 

 

 

 

 

Satisfaction

.617

.388

.8897

 

 

 

 

Personal Need

.148

.268

.193

.8635

 

 

 

Site Organization

.515

.229

.601

.205

0 .8356

 

 

User Friendliness

.300

.326

.515

.210

.000

.7959

 

Efficiency
 
Table III
Discriminant Validity

.340

.3380

.541

.105

.000

.000

.8073

 

 

7.     
Hypothesis
Testing

 

Below figure-II
demonstrate the effect model of e-commerce service quality on e-trust,
e-satisfaction and e-loyalty. This model represents four dimensions of
E-commerce service quality-efficiency measured by three indicators, user
friendliness by four indicators, personal need by three indicators and site organization
by four indicators. E-satisfaction, E-trust and E-loyalty by five indicators
each.

 Figure-II

The
results of various hypotheses constructed are presented in Table IV

Description

Estimate

p
values

Personal need ? internet banking service quality

.599

.000

Site organization?internet banking service quality

.742

.000

User friendliness?internet banking service quality

.653

.000

Efficiency of website?internet banking service quality

.788

.000

e-Customer satisfaction?internet banking service quality

.785

.000

e-Customer loyalty?e-customer satisfaction

.763

.000

e-Customer trust?internet banking service quality

.650

.000

e-Customer loyalty?internet banking service quality

.751

.000

e-Customer trust?e-Customer satisfaction

.602

.000

  Table IV

The regression coefficient shows
that the efficiency of website 0.788 is most factor impacting e-commerce
service quality followed by site organization 0.742 then user friendliness
0.652 and lastly personal need 0.599 respectively.

The results show that e-commerce
service quality has a positive relationship with e-customer satisfaction thus
H1 is supported (Muslim Amim, 2014). There is positive relationship between
e-commerce service quality on e-customer trust, thus H2 is supported .There is
also a positive relationship between e-commerce service quality on e-customer loyalty,
thus, H3 is supported contrary to result of Muslim Amim, 2014. There is a
positive relationship between e-customer satisfaction and e-loyalty thus, H4 is
supported. The impact of customer trust found to have positive relation on
e-customer loyalty, thus H5 is supported. Result for impact of e-satisfaction
found to have positive relation with e-trust, consistent with that of Dina
Ribbink (2004).

8.     
Discussion
and Managerial Implication

The
paper examines the impact of e-service quality on e-trust, e-satisfaction and
e-loyalty in Indian context. The results proved that all the four constructs
are clear-cut and has a significant positive relation with E-commerce Service
Quality. Therefore e-tailer should focus on all the four dimensions identified.
The result shows that website efficiency is the main driver of e-commerce sites
service quality followed by site organization, user friendliness and personal
need respectively. This result is similar to the results of Muslim Amim(2014).
If customer experiences bad with the functionality of e-commerce site, then
customer will draw out overall e-service quality before completion of the
transaction. To provide better service quality, E-tailer must provide customers
with efficient website(Herington and Weaven,
2009; Ho et al., 2012).

E-service quality have a significant positive relationship
with e-satisfaction, e-trust as well as e-loyalty and also e-satisfaction,
e-trust have a significant positive relationship with e-loyalty. Thus,
e-service quality has direct as well as indirect effect on e-loyalty

This study suggests that higher level of e-satisfaction and
e-trust will have the potential to enhance e-loyalty. E-commerce sites if
successful in reducing the risk factor concerned will help e-tailer to build a
loyal customer. If the customer feels that their transaction is unsecured/
their personal information may be misused, they will escape the website before
completing the transaction on it. Website should create confidence among
customers that they are safe while surfing on website.

This
paper can help in fostering growth of Indian online shopping in the future as
these can be used as guidelines for companies who want to enter e-commerce
Indian market. Companies should focus their efforts on E-tail service quality
towards developing consumer willingness to engage in long lasting customer of
the company and its services. This area needs more attention from entrepreneurs
and requires added facilities that can be attached to website for having
competitive advantage.

9.     
Limitation
and Future Research

Limitation-Like
other empirical studies, this study is not without limitation. The sample size
is not large enough, so the results should be interpreted with caution as
regards to generalization of research finding of Indian consumer as a whole
because sample is collected from some part of Punjab and Chandigarh.

Future Work-
Future research needs to focus on a larger cross section of internet users and
more diversified random samples to verify findings of current study. Focus can
be made in future regarding the comparative studies with other states or other
developed/ developing countries in order to find out whether effect of
individual service quality factor influencing customers purchase in competitive
mix may be more/less in other markets, and whether effect of customer
satisfaction and trust on loyalty may be more or less. Moreover, research could
be enhanced by expanding current model and cultural factors could be
investigated to add further depth as India, a multi-cultural country.