1 Windows Windows 10 is a personal computer

1      Windows

Windows 10
is a personal computer operating developed and released by Microsoft. It is the
first of windows that receives continued feature updates. Windows 10
is designed to customize its user interface and input methods based on the type
of device being used.

1.1   
Features

Windows 10 combines the user experience and
functionality between different types of devices, and addresses flaws that were
introduced in Windows 8.

The old system was reworked into the Universal
Windows Platform. The universal apps are made to run across multiple platforms like
smartphones, tablets, Xbox One consoles, and other Windows 10 devices. Windows
apps share the same code across multiple platforms and designs that adapt to
the needs of the device and available inputs, can synchronize data between
Windows 10 devices (including notifications, credentials and allowing
cross-platform multiplayer for games) and are distributed through the Windows
Store. It also allows for developer to enable “cross-buys”, which means that a purchased
license for an app applies to all of the user’s compatible devices, rather than
only the one they purchased it on.

1.2   
Users
interface

A new version of the Start menu is
used in Windows 10, with a list of places and other options on the left side,
and tiles representing applications on the right. The menu can be resized, and
expanded into a full-screen display. There are many options and features like virtual
desktop system and Task View, which open’s all displays, windows and allows
users to switch between them. Windows Store apps, which, in older versions,
could be used only in full screen mode, are now able to be used in
self-contained windows like other programs. When a window is snapped to one
side of the screen, Task View appears, and the user is prompted to choose a
second window to fill the unused side of the screen.

1.3   
System
security

Windows 10
incorporates multi-factor authentication into the system. Which is a step forward,
but while the operating supports biometric security, it still requires special supported
cameras and scanners. Users on those devices with the appropriate software can then
use these security features to their full effect. The enterprise version of
Windows 10 offers additional security features, since Administrators need more security
and control over their systems, they can set up policies for automatic
encryption of data, block certain applications from accessing encrypted data,
and enable Device Guard?—? system which allows administrators to enforce a high
security environment which blocks any execution of software.

2      Linux

Linux is a free and open-source software
operating system built around the Linux kernel. At first it was meant to be
used for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture. But later it
has been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.

2.1   
Features

Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing
system and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME. Some
distributions may include a less resource-intensive desktop while distributions
intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard
install and instead include other software to set up and operate server.
Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone can create a distribution for
any type of use.

2.2   
User
interface

The user
interfaces are different. They can be command line interface, a graphical user
interface or through controls associated with hardware, which is common for
embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default mode is usually a graphical
user interface.

Command
line interfaces (shells) are text-based user interfaces, which use text both
for input and output. The dominant shell used in Linux is Bash. Most low-level
Linux components, use the command line interface exclusively. The command line
interface is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks.

On desktop
systems, the most popular user interfaces are the graphical user interface
shells, packaged together with extensive desktop environments. It provides
network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system
to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application.

2.3   
Uses

Linux can
be used for many things. It is mostly used for desktops and servers. They can
also be used for mainframes, supercomputers, smart devices and embedded devices.

Linux has
been used as server operating system for a long time. Linux distributions are
the cornerstone for one of the more common platforms for website hosting.

Several operating systems for smart devices,
such as smartphones, tablet computers, smart TVs, and in-vehicle infotainment
systems, are based on Linux. One of the biggest platforms for these systems is
Android. Android has become the dominant mobile operating system for
smartphones, running on 80 percent of devices around the world. Android is also
a popular operating system for tablets, smart TVs and in-vehicle systems.

3      MacOS

MacOS is a series of graphical operating
systems developed by Apple. They are designed on Unix, and exclusively run on
Apple’s “Mac” computers and have been preinstalled on all Macs since 2002. By
usage they are the second most popular operating systems, right behind Windows.

3.1   
Features

A major difference between the classic Mac OS
and the current Mac OS was the addition of Aqua, a graphical user interface
with water like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window
element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on screen using spatial
anti-aliasing technology. It uses soft edges, translucent colors, and
pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs. Apple has continued
to change aspects of the MacOS appearance and design, particularly with small
changes to the appearance of windows and the menu bar.

3.2   
Components

MacOS was developed from Unix. It has a file browser,
called Finder, which allows quick access to all areas of the computer. It has
been modified throughout every new update of MacOS. It has many features like dynamic
preview of files, including videos and multi-page documents without opening any
other applications and its biggest advantage are rapid real-time searches of
data files.

 

 

4     
Comparison

·        
Update
cycle:

o  
MacOS:

§  MacOS has been updated regularly
since the beginning. Apple often issues smaller updates, but more prominent
changes come once a year, usually in autumn.

o  
Windows:

§  Windows 10 like MacOS has regular
updates. There won’t be a Windows 11 because Microsoft sees it’s OS as a
service and therefore they rather update it, rather than completely overhauling
it. The most recent major update was the Fall Creators Update in October 2017.

o  
Linux:

§  Has many distributions which are updated
at different cycles, some regularly and some more rarely or not at all anymore.

o  
MacOS:

§  Last time the design of MacOS changed
significantly was in Yosemite, when it had an overhaul, to bring it into line
with iOS. Design-wise, the MacOS has changed little since then.

o  
Windows:

§  Windows lacks the clean modern look of MacOS,
however there is a design refresh on its way, known as the fluent design system
that will include more animations, transparency and blurring of elements. This
is supposed to make it feel like Windows is moving around while you use it.

 

o  
Linux:

§  A Linux-based system is modular, meaning
developers and users can create their own design and modify them to their liking.

·        
Security:

o  
MacOS:

§  Apple has included many security
measures that make attacking a Mac particularly challenging. These include:
Gatekeeper, which blocks software that hasn’t been digitally approved by Apple
from running on your Mac without your agreement; built in anti-malware
protection in the form of its malware scanning tool Xprotect; Software that is
approved by Apple is also sandboxed, meaning they are isolated from critical
system components of the computer, data and other apps, so they shouldn’t be
able to access anything that could allow them to do any damage.

o  
Windows:

§  The Windows 10 Fall Creators update
bought ransomware protection and added controlled folder access that “protects
your files and folders from unauthorized changes by unfriendly applications.” A
bit like the way that Mac apps are sandboxed.

This means that if
unauthorized software attempts to access a protected Documents, Pictures,
Movies, or Desktop folder, it’ll be blocked, and you’ll be notified.

o  
Linux:

§  Linux is a highly secure operating
system. Although vulnerabilities are still discovered, its source code is open
and available for any user to review, which makes it easier to identify and
repair security holes.

·        
Voice
assistants:

o  
Siri:

§  Having the ability to search through the computer
using Siri is extremely useful and handy, as It allows for the use of a natural
language for searching files. Siri’s search results then sit in the
Notifications pane from where they can be dragged and dropped into applicable
apps, and manipulated at your own will.

o  
Cortana:

§ 

Cortana has a Daily Glance with
your meetings, the weather information about your commute, sports scores and
suchlike. If you allow it, Cortana can also access information from emails like
flight numbers, and warn you if there’s a delay or heavy traffic on the way to
the airport.

o  
Linux:

§  Linux does not have a voice
assistant.

 

5     
Conclusion

It does not
matter which operating system we use. We can use any one of them if we know how
to use them and of course if they suit us.

Windows and
MacOS are very competitive, they both have great features. But one always comes
out on top. In my opinion that is Windows because you can use it for everything.
Linux is mostly used for running servers.