14.3 Hydrogen chloride. Hydrochloric acid. you will:understand the properties of hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acidunderstand the preparation and usage areas of hydrochloric acid How is HCl acid formed in our stomach? How does the stomach not digest itself if it has strong hydrochloric acid in it?Glauber prepared this acid in 1648 by heating common salt with concentrated sulphuric acid. Davy in 1810 showed that it is a compound of hydrogen and chlorine. Physical properties Hydrogen chloride is a colorless and pungent smelling gas. It is easily liquefied to acolorless liquid (b.p.-84?) and freezes to a white crystalline solid (f.p. -114?). It is extremely soluble in water and ionises as below: HCl + H2O ? H3O+ + Cl- It doesn’t conduct electricity in its liquid and gaseous phases, only in its aqueous solutions. The atoms in the molecule are covalently bonded to each other and because of the difference in their electronegativity values, the molecule is polar. Aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride is called hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid is strong acid. It can dissolve in organic solvents such as C2H5OH.A 40% HCl solution can be prepared with a density of 1.19 g/cm3. The concentrated HCl used in the laboratories is 35-36%. It is a colorless acid with a sharp odor. It fumes in moist air and hydrogen chloride, gas is evolved. 98997404 HCl molecule 616708079 Industrial preparationWorld production of HCl is of the order of 10 million tonnes. It is released from the rock-salt (Leblanc process): 1. Rock salt 1670037622. Hydrogen chloride is prepared by the direct reaction of hydrogen with chlorine, and its aqueous solution gives hydrochloric acid. H2(g) + Cl2(g) ? 2HCl(g) Chemical properties 1. Reaction with metalsHydrochloric acid reacts with active metals to produce the chloride salts and H2 gas.2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) ? ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)Passive metals does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid. But, adding bubbles of oxygen, reaction is occurs: 4HCl(aq) + 2Cu(s) + O2(g) ? 2CuCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)2. Reaction with ammonia gas:Solution of ammonia reacts with HCl acid solution to give ammonium chloride smog:HCl(g) + NH3(g) ? NH4Cl(g)3. It reacts with bases, basic oxides and amphoteric oxides:2HCl + MgO ? MgCl2 + H26HCl + Al2O3 ? 2AlCl3 + 3H2OHCl + KOH ? KCl + H2O4. Hydrochloric acid reacts with some salts to produce other acids and insoluble chloride salts form. These types of reactions are used to detect some ions, such as Ag+ and Pb2+, in analytical chemistry.HCl + AgNO3 ? AgCl + HNO32HCl + Pb(NO3)2 ? PbCl2 + 2HNO32HCl + CaCO3 ? CaCl2 + H2O + CO25. It reacts with oxidizing agents such as KMnO4 (and K2Cr2O7, KClO3) to produce Cl22KMnO4 + 16HCl ? 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 8H2O + 5Cl26. When three parts of concentrated HCl and one part of concentrated HNO3 are mixed, aqua regia is formed which is used for dissolving noble metals, e.g., gold, platinum.Au + HNO3+ 4HCl ? HAuCl4 + NO + 2H2O Formation of ammonium chloride 154194143 UsesIt is also used in the manufacture of chlorine, NH4Cl and glucose (from corn starch), for extracting glue from bones and purifying bone black, in medicine and as a laboratory reagent, in the manufacture of dyes, rubber and medicines. In addition, it is found in our stomach for digestion. Most of the HCl is used for making vinyl chloride (CH2=CH-Cl) and chlorinated solvents (CCl4, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, etc). Stomach 6985793561. What are the preparation reactions of hydrogen chloride?2. Write the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen chloride.3. Write the uses of HCl.4. When 50 grams of an alloy of Cu and Al react with sufficient hydrochloric acid, HCl, 22.4 L of H2at STP are produced. What is the mass percentage of Al in the alloy?5. 17 g of calcium is reacted by concentrated HCl. Find the total volume of obtained gas at STP.6. What mass of dilute hydrochloric acid solution containing 15% HCl will be needed to dissolve 36 g of calcium carbonate?7. What volume of CO2 measured at STP could be obtained by dissolving 75 g of pure marble (calcium carbonate) chips in dilute HCl?8. 58 g of ammonia is treated with 1L (20%, d=1.02g/ml) hydrochloric acid solution. How many grams of product can be obtained?9. A test tubes contain pieces of copper, zinc and iron. Identify which metal present in each of these tubes? 10. How can we differentiate the marble, MnO2, pyrite FeS2 minerals by using hydrochloric acid? Explain briefly.11. When HCl reacts with finely powdered iron, it forms ferrous chloride and not ferric chloride. Why? PbCl2 is a white crystalline solid (it looks like snow) that is almost insoluble in cold water. It is fairly soluble in hot water. HCl and hydrochloric acid are major industrial chemicals. Hydrochloric acid is used in the metal and chemical industries. In the metal industries, it is used to clean rust and scale from metal surfaces. Old house door pungent smell – ????? ??? / ?????? ????? digestion – ?? ?????? / ???????????