2.1 The Importance of English Language
English is regarded as a world language. It is used to communicate with people of different nations
C. Paul Verghese (1989) said:
“…most people who speak English are not English and were not born in England. Not only has the ‘national’ sense of English no official political meaning: the ‘language’ sense of ‘English’ has no necessary link with the genetic sense either.”
All people who speak the English language were not born in England, they can be from any country which has their own mother tongue but they use English to communicate for various purposes. It does not concern with their genetic sense. It concerns with the environment and the situation of where they stay.
Josh Exeqiel Aquino (2014) stated:
“As we all know, English is the one of important language in this world. If we cannot speak English even a little bit, we are called as a very poor in this community. We also cannot improve our lives if we worst in English. We will feel loser if we in the group that use English as a medium to speak. Most of the students do not want to use English as the main language in their life. People always said that we must use our country language so that it indicates we love our country. The statement is not faulted but we also must learn English for our future life such as to find a job, to communicate with the foreigner, easy to understand if we find information through online and easy for the learners to survive in university life.”
English becomes a part of the daily life for those who are studying in Universities, language schools and training centers, working in foreign direct investment companies, multination companies, non-profit organizations and non-government organizations. If someone does not speak English well, he or she will have difficulties in his or her daily life.
Liam Webber said:
“English is also essential to the field of education. In many countries, children are taught and encouraged to learn English as a second language. Even in countries where it is not an official language, such as the Netherlands or Sweden, we will find many syllabi in science and engineering are written in English. Because it is the dominant language in the sciences, most of the research and studies you find in any given scientific field will be written in it as well. At the university level, students in many countries study almost all their subjects in English in order to make the material more accessible to international students.”
English is the most widely used language in the world. It has been influenced by many other languages. Many books for different professions are written in English for the university level, so they can find their respective subject easily. If English is not used, there will be limited resources for them.
2.2 Definitions and Characteristics of ESP
ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting. The range of ESP has been extended and become more flexible in the modified description.
“English for specific purposes (ESP) is a subset of English as a second or foreign language. It usually refers to teaching the English language to university students or people already in employment, with reference to the particular vocabulary and skills they need. As with any language taught for specific purposes, a given course of ESP will focus on one occupation or profession, such as Technical English, Scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters, English for tourism, etc.”
They are learning the language in order to communicate professional information and to perform some particular, job-related functions. They have their own desire and reason why they want to learn. Unlikely, the General English learners have to learn English as a subject during their learning.
Tom Hutchinson and Alar. Waters, (1987) defined :
“ESP is an approach rather than a product, meaning that ESP does not involve a particular type of language, teaching materials or methodology.”
ESP is teaching English according to the specialization of the learners. It is an approach to get the goals of learners for each specialization.
Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998) argued :
“…the advantages of ESP courses compared to EGP courses rely on the fact that there is no waste in time as courses are focused on the learner’s needs; they are relevant to the students; are successful in contributing to the learning process.”
The learners who are learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP) are different from those who are learning the General English. ESP learners are usually adults, who are familiar with the English language. ESP learners are highly motivated. Most of the learners who would like to learn ESP has the aims to specify what exactly it is that they have to go through the medium of English.
Basturkmen (2010) explained :
“ESP courses set out to teach the language and communication skills that specific groups of language learners need or will need to function effectively in their disciplines of study, professions or workplaces”.
Since ESP is intended for the learners with specific purposes, it can actually help the learners to understand the disciplines and perform in their workplaces. They will get both English language proficiency and their corresponding area at the same time.
Tom Hutchinson and Alar. Waters, (1987) pointed out
“The fact that language is used for a specific purpose does not imply that it is a special form of the language, different in kind from other forms. ESP is not just a matter of Science words and grammar for Scientists, Hotel words and grammar for Hotel staff and so on.”
2.2.1 The role of teacher in ESP
The aim of ESP teacher is not only to meet the learners´ specific needs in the field of particular discipline but also to provide satisfying learning background.
Hutchinson and Waters, (1992) expressed:
“ESP teacher should not become a teacher of the subject matter, but rather an interested student of the subject of the subject matter.”
ESP teacher is a teacher who helps the learners to reach their certain proficiency of language in their respective field. Besides the typical duties of the classroom teacher, ESP teacher deals with needs analysis, syllabus design, materials writing or adaption and evaluation, ESP teacher´s role in one of many parts.
2.2.2 Motivation for ESP Learners
Motivation is one of the critical factors that impact the success of language learning. It plays a vital role in learners’ achievements. The significance of motivation in enhancing foreign language learning is undeniable. The learners with the higher level of motivation thrive much better in learning the language. By putting together a course which focuses on the learners’ specialization, the content becomes more relevant to them and therefore enhances the learners’ motivation making learning more effective and faster.