A spontaneous abortion, also called a miscarriage is the loss of the baby before the twentieth week of the pregnancy. (Miscarriage) Spontaneous abortions occur in at least fifteen to twenty percent of all pregnancies and usually occur before the thirteenth week.(Medical) A induced abortion is an abortion brought on intentionally by medication or instrumentation. (Induced) There are many reasons women have for getting an abortion. Forty-eight percent of women said they had problems with their relationship or wanted to avoid single parenthood. Thirty-two percent said they were unready. Twenty-five percent said the timing was wrong. Twenty-three percent said they can’t afford a baby right now. Twenty-two percent said they were too young or immature to have a child. Nineteen percent said they have completed their childbearing or have other people depending on them. Sixteen percent of women said they were concerned about how having a baby would change their life.Thirteen percent said the baby could have health problems. Twelve percent said the mother has health problems. Six percent of said woman’s parents or partner wants her to have an abortion. Four percent said it would interfere with their education or career plans. Three percent of women said there were other reasons for them having an abortion. One percent because of rape. One percent also said they didn’t want people to know they were pregnant. Less than point five percent said because of incest. Even though a woman has reasons for aborting her baby doesn’t make it right. (O’Bannon) (Johnston) There are several abortion procedures that occur in the first trimester.RU-486 also known as Mifepristone is a pill used in combination with misoprostol to terminate pregnancy at an early stage. It is used with women who are no more that seven weeks pregnant. (Medical Definition). RU-486 blocks the progesterone receptors.. Progesterone stimulates the the lining of the uterus which nourishes the developing child.On the first visit to the Doctor the woman is given mifepristone which will kill the baby, If the abortion has not occurred when the mother goes back to the doctor two day later she is then given a second drug called misoprostol which will cause cramping and the embryo will expel.(Before) RU-486 fills the chemical receptor sites which is for progesterone it does not transmit a signal and the woman’s body shuts down and initiates the regular menstrual cycle. The baby is deprived of necessary nutrients and starves to death. The baby detaches and comes out along with the decayed uterine lining. Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and painful cramping are some of the side effects and could be so severe they put the woman in the hospital. Less frequent but more severe side effects could be infection, heart palpitations, and possible birth defects of future children. (RU-486)(RU-486 Sure?) Suction or Vacuum Aspiration can be used around the fifth to twelfth week of the pregnancy. (Vacuum) This is the most common abortion procedure used today. First the cervix is dilated and a suction tube is inserted into the womb. A powerful vacuum dismembers and tears apart the child. The vacuum sucks the pieces into a jar attached to the tube. The abortionist must make sure all the pieces of the baby are out of the mother, if all the pieces are not removed an infection or hemorrhage could occur. There is a risk that during the procedure the uterus could be punctured.(Suction) A Dilation and Curettage (D&C) is usually performed in the first thirteen weeks of pregnancy. A D&C is one of the most common abortions in the U.S, and the babies are often alive the whole time. A D&C is a when the cervix is widened and a surgical procedure is performed to remove part of the uterus lining and the baby. A curette, a metal rod with a sharp loop on one end and a handle on the other is inserted into the uterus through the cervix. The curette gently scrapes the lining and the baby and removes it from the uterus. The baby is examined for completeness or abnormalities. (D and C) The major possible risks of a D&C are puncture or scarring to the uterus, weakened cervix, and an incomplete procedure. (D&C Procedure)Several different abortion procedures are performed in the second trimester. Dilation and Evacuation (D&E) is done in the second twelve weeks of pregnancy. An ultrasound is done before the procedure to determine the size of the uterus and the week of the pregnancy. Dilation and Evacuation is a two part procedure. The first step that is done one or two days before the procedure is gradually softening and dilating the cervix. It is usually done with an osmotic dilator. The second step is the evacuation of the baby and the placenta from the uterus. The day of the procedure the women are given anesthesia and antibiotics to prevent infection. A pair of forceps is inserted into the uterus to grab part of the baby. The forceps tear and twist the bones of the baby. The process is repeated until the baby is totally removed. The head of the baby is sometimes too large and has to be crushed in order to remove it. (Dilation) Sharp pieces of broken bones can puncture the woman’s uterus or can cause a large tear. It can also cause damage to other internal organs.(D & E)The Saline Abortion “Salting out” can be used after sixteen weeks. The doctor inserts a long needle through the mother’s abdomen, and injects a saline solution into the amniotic sac. The baby becomes poisoned from swallowing the solution and the skin of the baby is completely burned. It takes about an hour for the baby to die. After the baby dies the mother goes into labor and the baby comes out. Some babies have survived and have been born alive. Saline abortions have become illegal in some countries because the salt poison can get into the mother’s bloodstream and cause lung and kidney damage.(Salt)A D or Partial Birth is usually performed in the nineteenth to twenty sixth week of pregnancy. (Partial) Two days before the procedure a laminaria which is a type of seaweed that expands when moist is inserted into the cervix. On the third day the membranes that are around the baby breaks and the amniotic fluid rushes out. (Haney, 13)Then forceps are inserted into the uterus and grab the baby’s legs. The legs are pulled out and the head is still in the uterus. The base of the skull is pierced with scissors, and a catheter is inserted to remove the contents of the skull. The skull collapses and the baby is delivered.(Abortion)(Goldberg)A Prostaglandin abortion is usually performed in the second to early third trimester. In a prostaglandin abortion a prostaglandin hormones is injected into a muscle in the uterus, this causes violent labor which results in the death of the baby.(Clowes) Prostaglandin abortions are rarely used today due to the high chances that the baby will survive. If it is done before they will usually inject salt, urea, or another toxin first. The risk of this abortion on the mother are complications that can include cardiac arrest.(Prostaglandin) The Hysterotomy is used mainly in the last three months of pregnancy. The hysterotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the uterus to remove the baby. The umbilical cord is cut in the uterus to cut off the oxygen supply and cause the baby to suffocate. This abortion lets the baby die of neglect. This method is the highest risk of death for the mother. The hysterotomy is sometimes used it the salt poisoning or prostaglandin abortion didn’t work. Some babies have been able to be nurtured back to help and put up for adoption. (Hysterotomy) (Welland) Although abortion is legal in all states some states have tightened rules in abortion clinics and have put restrictions on some drug induced abortions.(Devine) There are many abortion laws in North Carolina. If a girl is under eighteen she cannot have an abortion without the consent of a parent or guardian who they have lived with for at least six months. If the girl cannot get the consent of the parent or guardian they can get a judicial bypass waiver. There is an exceptio for parental consent if it is necessary for the mother to have an abortion for medical reasons. The judge will grant a parental consent waiver and will explain to the parents why they need the abortion.(Parenthood) In North Carolina, only a licensed doctor or physician can perform an abortion. They can only perform it in a hospital or clinic that has a license to perform abortions. Abortions are illegal if the doctor gives the mother any substance that could cause a miscarriage. An illegal abortion will be tried and could be punishable with up to ten years in prison. (North) A woman hast to have state counseling to try and discourage her from getting an abortion, they then have to wait twenty four hours before the procedure can be done. A woman must also have an ultrasound, and be able to look at the baby before the abortion. Public funding for the woman is only available in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest.(State) A physician or nurse licensed to practice medicine does not have to participate in medical procedure that results in abortion because of moral, ethical, or religious grounds.(Karges) North Carolina puts a time limit on when you can have an abortion. The time limit is twenty weeks.(Fraizer) Roe v. Wade is a case that on January 22,1973, ruled that abortion is unconstitutional. The case began in 1970 when Norma McCorvey wanted federal action against Henry Wade.(Napikoski) Norma was a highschool dropout and had run away from home and was sent to reform school. Her parents were divorced when she was thirteen and she had suffered abuse. When she was sixteen she married Elwood McCorvey and had left Texas to go to California. When she got back to Texas she was pregnant and her mother took the baby to take care of. Her second child was raised by the baby’s father. She had gotten pregnant a third time and lied and said it was from rape.(Herda, 5-6) At the time in Texas it was only legal to have an abortion if the mother was in danger. Norma was referred to lawyers Linda Coffee and Sarah Weddington who had wanted a client who wanted to challenge the laws of abortion. (Bauer) In 1970 Coffee and Weddington filed a suit in the District Court for Northern Texas for McCorvey. The defendant in the case was Henry Wade who represented the state of Texas. The case took three years to reach the Supreme Court and Norma never went to any of the trials. During the trials Sarah Weddington argued that women should have the rights to make the decision on whether or not they have an abortion. Wade argued and said that the court was not looking at the rights of the child and that the life of the baby begins at conception. Wellington also argued the ninth and fourteenth amendment. After three years on January 22,1973 abortion became legal in the first three month of the woman’s pregnancy. The final vote was 7-2.(Schambelan, 13-19) In the 1980’s she began volunteering at abortion clinics and began to speak out in the favor of the right to choose. In 1955 Norma began working in and abortion clinic in Dallas. Norma said, “I had no actual experience with abortion until that point, becoming even more emotionally confused and conflicted between what my conscience knew to be evil, and what my mind and need for money were telling me was OK.” Operation rescue moved next door. At first Norma was opposed to becoming friends with them but she became friends with some of them and started to doubt her views of abortion. She was mainly affected by one of the pro-lifers daughters, Emily Mackey. She started to realize what abortion was doing to children. She had become friends with Operation Rescue preacher Philip Benham. Norma said that Benham was kind to her and she attend church with him and was baptized. After her conversion she dedicated herself to pro-life work and started her own ministry, “Roe No More”. In 2003 she went to court to try and overturn Roe v. Wade. her case was dismissed but one of the judges wrote a strongly critical concurrence on the Roe decision. Norma never had her abortion, she gave her baby up for adoption. On February 18, 2017 Norma McCorvey passed away.(The) Doe v. Bolton is a case similar to Roe v. Wade. In 1968 the Georgia Legislature passed a law making abortions illegal unless an abortion doctor determines that the pregnancy would endanger the mother’s life or injure her health. Mary Doe, was a twenty two year old mother and was nine weeks pregnant. Mary felt she was entitled to an abortion,because she already had three children and wouldn’t be able to support another child, so she filed a lawsuit. A panel of three judges in the United States district court said the conditional restrictions of the law were unconditional. They upheld the medical approval and residency requirements, and refused an injunction against the enforcement of the law. A 7-2 majority declared the constitutional right of abortion. In 2003 Mary Doe filed a case saying that she had not been aware that the case had been filed and that if she would have known she would not have supported it. (Legal) In 1965, in the case of Harris v. McCrae Congress established the Medicaid Program. Harris v. McCrae is a lawsuit brought on by the Center of Constitutional Rights, that challenges federal restrictions on Medicaid funds for medically necessary abortions.McCrae wanted the government to pay for her abortion even though it wasn’t medically necessary. McCrae filed a lawsuit against Patricia Harris the Secretary of Health and Human Services.In the downfall of McCrae the state challenged funding restrictions under state constitution. On January 15,1980, after thirteen months of liberation, the federal District Court Judges decided on federal restrictions for Medicaid funds. Harris appealed to the Supreme Court.The court decided to provide medical reimbursement for all to provide Medicaid reimbursement for all medically necessary abortions.(Harris)Stenberg v. Carhart was a case where the Nebraska law prohibited any partial birth abortion unless it was medically necessary. Leroy Carhart, a Nebraska physician who performed abortion filed a lawsuit against Don Stenberg. Stenberg thought that the law was invalid and wanted to injunction it. After conducting a trial the district court invalidated the law.( Stenberg)In September 2017, Time Magazine said that “Nearly Half of the Abortions Around the World are Unsafe.” An estimated fifty five million abortions are performed each year. About twenty-two million of those abortions are considered not safe. Researchers from the World Health Organizer and Guttmacher Institute looked at abortions that were performed and classified them as safe, less safe, and least safe. They said that fifty five percent of the abortions performed were safe and they were recommended by WHO. Thirty-one percent of the abortions that they looked at were less safe. This means the method being used to perform the abortion is outdated. About fourteen percent of the abortions were least safe. That means the abortions were being performed by someone who was untrained. (Sifferlin)The Justice department is laying down groundwork for investigation of the transfer of fetal tissue from abortion providers, including Planned Parenthood. In a letter sent to the Senate Judiciary Committee there was a request of documents from an investigation in 2016 about the exchange of human fetal tissue that has been donated for research from women who get abortions. (Fandos)On October 19, 2017 a judge ruled that a seventeen year old illegal immigrant has the access to a publicly funded abortion. US District Court ordered the authorities to transport the minor to be transported to an abortion clinic. In court there was an argument that the Trump administration was forcing the pregnant woman to stay pregnant against her will. She is believed to be fifteen weeks pregnant and in Texas you can only have an abortion before twenty weeks. Government lawyers also argued that minors from other countries have no right to an abortion unless it is medically necessary. (Judge)There are 220 different cells in the human body.In 1998, at the University of Wisconsin and John Hopkins University researchers found a way to get stem cells from embryos and maintain their growth. Scientist have found ways of getting the stems cells to develop into most types of human cells. Researchers think that these stem cells will lead to treatments of many diseases such as bone loss, broken bones, brain damage, severe burns, heart disease, leukemia, lupus, muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, stroke, and many more. Many pro lifers oppose the research as they feel that the stem cells are taken from humans. Many people believe that the embryos have souls. The embryos are killed when the stem cells are removed . Pro lifers think the extraction is murder. There are major problems with embryonic stem cells. First is the harvesting of stem cells from surplus embryos for in-vitro fertilization procedures in fertility clinics. The second problem is whether the stem cell lines that have already been created should be used for research. Another problem is how human embryos have to be destroyed in order to take stem cells. A human embryo is not a potential human being, it is a human being. It is not right to harm or destroy something for the benefit of others. Embryonic stem cell are usually taken from unwanted embryos. They are typically embryos created during medical procedures. When a woman undergoes in-vitro fertilization she is given a medication that will cause her to produce two dozen mature ova. They are then fertilized with her husband’s sperm.Two to five days later two to four embryo are implanted in the womb. The rest are usually frozen in liquid nitrogen, some are discarded. Pre-embryos usually have no brain or any internal organs. They consist of identical undifferentiated cells contain human DNA. There is no way to discard the excess embryos. Researcher cannot currently do research on surplus embryos in government labs due to it currently being suspended.(Cloning) (Ertelf)In Jeremiah 1:5 it says “Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations.” God knows us before we are even born and he loves everyone. Exodus 20:13 says “Thou shalt not kill.” God has a plan for everyone and a reason for everything. Abortion is not good for the mother or the baby. Killing a baby is a permanent decision. There are other options for women who do not feel able to take care of their baby. Christians should be a voice for the baby’s and not be afraid to stand up for what is right.