According or generate the best overall results, for

According to Beauchamp
et. al (2001),  there are 4 main ethical
principle of study that guided researchers to use these principle in conducting
their research and the data that are gathered. These are:

·        
Respect for autonomy.

·        
Non-maleficence.

·        
Beneficence.

·        
Justice.

 

Respect for autonomy can be defined as requirement to ensure that
research participants are entirely free to make a choice about their
participation in a research study (Beauchamp et. al, 2001). It means that the
participant must be given an adequate information about the conducted research
and what participation are involves. They also must be free from any influence
or coercion. Duncan (2015) stated that the principle of non-maleficence must be
applied to any researchers which they have an obligation not to inflict any
harm on their study participant. For example, asking a question that can cause
distress or discomfort to the participant. Therefore, these particular care
should be stressed to ensure that these research are properly conducted. In the
beneficence ethical principle, it has two elements which is positive
beneficence and utility beneficence. This is according to Yoshino (2008) which
he stated that positive beneficence are doing positive good in the sense that
research has some value of scientifically and educationally, for example,
address an necessary and important question. Meanwhile, he also stated that
utility beneficence are refers to the researcher’s requirement in ‘balances and
drawback’ to produce or generate the best overall results, for example, make an
assessment whether the benefits of the research are justify the level of
effort, costs, and risk of harm to the participants. Lastly, the ethical
principle of justice can refers  as an
equal and fair distribution of resources, analysis based and the burdens of the
decisions (Rich, 2008). It means that treating people equally and fairly to
ensure that they are accorded their full rights.

For example, many participants
are willing to participate in research, and to take on the considerable burden
often associated with clinical research, in the same time they are not exposed
to economic harm by engaging in the research. Therefore, all these ethical
principle that are outlined are well acknowledged and respected by most of the
researcher. Thus,
researchers should pay attention to this issue so that participants can be
better informed and have greater exposure about the informed consent
documents that they are required to sign. Furthermore, researchers should take
all the steps necessary to ensure that participants fully understand what is
being stated in the consent form.