Anemia marrow biopsyTreatment:Anemia treatment depends on the cause-Iron

Anemia is a condition in which our blood lacks enough healthy blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. If our body has fewer red blood cells, or lower hemoglobin, then the cells in our body will not get enough oxygen.Certain forms of anemia are hereditary and infants may be affected from the time of birth.There are many types of anemia. All are very different in their causes and treatments. Iron-deficiency anemia, the most common type, is very treatable with diet changes and iron supplements. However, some types of anemia may present lifelong health problems.There are more than 400 types of anemia. Symptoms:Easy fatigue and loss of energy.Unusually rapid heart beat, particularly with exercise.Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise.Difficulty concentrating.Dizziness.Pale skin.Leg cramps.Insomnia.                                  How Anemia is caused in Red Blood CellsThe actual process of red blood cell production takes place in the red bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside the bones. Production of red blood cells is stimulated by erythropoietin, a hormone made by the kidneys when low levels of oxygen are present in the blood. Erythropoietin stimulates “master cells,” called stem cells, in the bone marrow to differentiate into red blood cells. Once the stem cell “commits” to becoming a red blood cell, it extrudes its nucleus and fills with hemoglobin. If the production of the red blood cells are less, then it leads to decrease in hemoglobin. Thus, causing anemia. THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF ANEMIAIron deficiency anaemia – Deficiency of iron in hemoglobin.Thalassaemia – It is an inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin.Aplastic anaemia – It is a condition when our body stops producing enough new blood cells.Haemolytic anaemia – It is a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before before their normal lifespan is over.Sickle cell anaemia – A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, namely hemoglobin S. Pernicious anaemia – Pernicious anemia is defined as a type of vitamin B12 deficiency that results from impaired uptake of vitamin B12 due to the lack of a substance known as intrinsic factor (IF) produced by the stomach lining. Fanconi anaemia – Fanconi anemia is due to an abnormal gene that damages cells, which keeps them from repairing damaged DNA.Diagnosis:To diagnose anemia, your doctor may ask you about your medical and family history, perform a physical exam, and run the following tests:– Complete blood count (CBC). A CBC is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood.– A test to determine the size and shape of your red blood cells. Some of your red blood cells may also be examined for unusual size, shape and color.–  Urine  test– Gastroscopy or colonoscopy– Bone marrow biopsyTreatment:Anemia treatment depends on the cause-Iron deficiency anemia –  Treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and making changes to your diet.Vitamin deficiency anemia – Treatment for folic acid and B-12 deficiency involves dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet.Aplastic anemia – Treatment for this anemia may include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells.Anemias associated with bone marrow disease – Treatment of these various diseases can include medication, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.Hemolytic anemias – Managing hemolytic anemias includes avoiding suspect medications, treating related infections and taking drugs that suppress your immune system, which may be attacking your red blood cells.Sickle cell anemia – Treatment for this anemia may include the administration of oxygen, pain-relieving drugs, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications.Thalassemia –  This anemia may be treated with blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, medication, removal of the spleen (splenectomy), or a blood and bone marrow stem cell transplant.ROLE OF ORGANISATIONS-Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, Inc- It is committed to providing education and support services to families around the world affected by FA. Iron Disorders Institute (IDI)- is an organization that aims no one should suffer or die prematurely because of Iron-Out-of-Balance.Sickle Cell Information Center External Link-. providing the sickle cell patient and professional access to education, news and research updates.THE IMPACT OF TREATMENT-The impact of treatment in anemia varies from person to person. Moral Point- In sensitive cases like elderly people and infants suffering from Thalassemia Anemia they feel depressed and morally down. In most of the cases they are not able to survive due to less supply of blood.Economic Point- Many people who have a low income, face difficulties and leave the treatment in between such as in severe case like Sickle cell anemia, Aplastic anemia, etc.  Sources cited