Chapter in the Philippines it spans 6 years

Chapter 2

                                            
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

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                   Education is not just important, but the
most important thing you can have. According to Spain exchange Country Guide (yyyy),
the Philippine Education System consists of three stages namely the Primary
Education, Secondary Education, and the Higher Education. In the Primary
Education in the Philippines it spans 6 years in duration and is required to
all students. Children generally begin at the age of 6 or 7. Students are rated
in every subject four times during the school year.  At the end of each school year, students are
promoted from one grade level to the next. The primary school system is divided
into two cycles: Primary Cycle.  Four
years-Grades 1-4, age 6-11 and Intermediate Cycle-Grades 5 and 6, age 11-13. After
the Primary Education is the Secondary Education which is students is rated
four time throughout the year. Students must complete the 4 years of secondary
education, obtaining 75 percent or better in all the subject. After the four
years of Secondary Education is the Higher Education wherein students choose
their course or basically what they want, it is either University Education,
Bachelor Degrees, Master Degrees, PhD Degrees or the Non-University Higher
Education (Vocational and Technical). The year of education is depending on the
course that they want.

          According to DepEd (yyyy), in
School Year 2012-2013, the enhanced curriculum for K to 12 was implemented. In
2013, K to 12 was enacted into law known as RA 10533.  SHS Curriculum was finished in 2014 and for
2015, the Department is getting ready for the implementation of the SHS. Senior
high school (SHS) refers to Grades 11 and 12, the last two years of the K-12
program. Students begin to study in SHS the subjects that will introduce them
to their preferred career path. In that case, Secondary Education is called the
Junior High School, from Grades 7-10. According to Republic Act No. 10533
(Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013), The enhanced basic education program
encompasses at least one (1) year of kindergarten education, six (6) years of
elementary education, and six (6) years of secondary education, in that
sequence. Secondary education includes four (4) years of junior high school and
two (2) years of senior high school education. Senior High School students will
choose a core curriculum and specializations in four tracks: academic,
technical-vocational and livelihood, sports, and arts and design.

           Everybody loves to eat, but
not everybody loves and knows how to cook. Philippines is known for its best
Filipino dishes. In the Philippines, there are lots of culinary schools like Philippine
School of Culinary Arts, The Academy for International Culinary Arts, Most
Institute Culinary School, Magsaysay Center for Hospitality and Culinary Arts,
and many more. Queen City of the South or must know as Cebu City, are rich in
the food industry. Cebu City also consist of Culinary Schools like,
International School for Culinary Arts and Hotel Management, International
Culinary Arts Academy Cebu, Philippine School of Culinary Arts, The Academy for
International Culinary Arts, Magsaysay Center for Hospitality and Culinary Arts,
Center for Asian Culinary Studies Cebu, and American International Culinary
& Hospitality Institute. But among the culinary schools in Cebu, who offers
Senior High School Program? Only International School for Culinary Arts and
Hotel Management offers Senior High School Program for students from Grades
11-12 that wants to take the Cookery and Bread and Pastry Production. The Grade
11 students will take the Cookery, and will have an assessment in TESDA. While
the Grade 12 students will take the Bread and Pastry Production in the first
semester, and will have an assessment in TESDA. Half way of it, they will take
the Food and Beverage Production.

           Behind all of it is a teacher
who teaches the students to learn all things. For short, the learnings of the
students are based on a teacher or in other word effective education can be achieved through the efforts of well qualified,
competent and effective teachers. So, what are the teaching competencies of a
teacher? According to Olga Nessipbayeva (yyyy), there are 5 teaching
competencies: First, Teachers demonstrate leadership by Teachers lead in the
classroom, Teachers demonstrate leadership in the school, Teachers lead the
teaching profession, Teachers advocate for schools and students, and Teachers
demonstrate high ethical standards. Second, Teachers establish a respectful environment
for a diverse population of students by Teachers provide an environment in
which each child has a positive, nurturing relationship with caring adults, Teachers
embrace diversity in the school community and in the world, Teachers treat
students as individuals, Teachers adapt their teaching for the benefit of
students with special needs, and Teachers work collaboratively with families of
students and other

significant adults. Third, Teachers know
the content they teach by Teachers develop and apply lessons based on an
effective course of study, Teachers honor the content appropriate to their
teaching specialty, Teachers show they recognize the interconnectedness of
content areas/discipline and Teachers make their instructions relevant to
students. Fourth, Teachers facilitate learning for their students by Teachers
show they know the ways in which learning takes place and the appropriate
levels of intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of their
students, Teachers plan instruction appropriate to their students, Teachers
show their acumen and versatility, Teachers display their awareness of
technology’s potential to enhance

learning, Teachers help students grow as thinking
individuals, Teachers help students to work in teams and develop leadership
qualities, Teachers reach their students best and Teachers best assess what
students have learned. Lastly, Teachers reflect on their practice by Teachers
analyze student learning, Teachers link professional growth to their
professional goals and Teachers function effectively in a complex, dynamic
environment.

         Thus, by achieving the
competency level of a teacher it is needed strategies to help the teacher to
improve its competency level. These are few of teaching strategies depending
also upon your style and upon your students. In teaching it must be Cooperative
learning wherein it gives students the opportunity to work with others and to
cope-up with different ideas or point of view because, students work
effectively rather than being alone. Also, Inquiry-Based Instruction is part of
teaching strategies in which students is involve in the learning process, so
they will have a deeper understanding of what they are learning. As well as Differentiated
Instruction: Learning Stations whereat teachers allow engaging each student by
accommodating to their specific learning style, because we learn in a different
and various ways. Graphic Organizers also is an effective tool for learning it
helps the student to brainstorm and organize their thoughts and ideas in a
visual presentation, in that they help each other for them to comprehend
easily. And lastly, Utilizing Technology in the Classroom because technology
now a day is part of each student’s life, so it keeps students motivated and
engaged longer by showing multimedia presentations such as a video, animation,
or some type of graphic, virtual field trip, participating in an online
research project.