Feudalism the Renaissance primarily because of the Black

Feudalism to Renaissance

Europeans
went from feudalism to the Renaissance primarily because of the Black Death.
The Black Death caused a dramatic decrease in the population of Europe. This
enabled survivors to demand higher wages. Peasants were able to substitute cash
rents for the legal obligations of serfdom. However, as the price of labor rose
so did the price of goods. This reduced the income of nobles who lost the
ability to bargain with peasants and had more trouble supporting knights and
fighting men. Landowners and merchants tried to limit wages by  landowners changing croplands to lands for
raising sheep because that needed less labor. People then began looking for
jobs in town, but guilds limited opportunities. This caused peasants to revolt.
At the same time, artisans fought for more power, but were unsuccessful. The
king raised taxes to protect the middle class and their trade from bandits and
exonerate nobles. These factors set into motion by the Black Death caused the
growth of kings’ power and centralized states along with the breakdown of
feudalism. The Renaissance began in Italy because of interest in Rome’s culture
as Italy was the center of ancient Roman civilization. During the middle ages,
Italy’s Northern city-states had been prosperous and became centers of trade
and manufacturing. Italy had trading ports along its coastlines which allowed
it to trade with the Muslim world. This exposed them to knowledge from ancient
Greece and Rome that the Muslim world had kept safe while it had been lost in
Europe. A class of rich and important merchants in city-states arose in the
city-states. They aided the beginning of the Renaissance by being patrons of
the arts.

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Renaissance to absolutism

Absolutism
arose because of the Reformation led by Martin Luther. The reformation caused
Catholic Church’s moral and political authority to weaken. This gave monarchs
an opportunity to gain power. As power of monarchs and states increased, so did
the power of modern nation-states. This caused more countries and their leaders
to be power hungry, and therefore, there was more war, exploration, and
expansion. After political disorder, people liked the idea of more organized
governments and absolute monarchies fit this. Renaissance ideas favored
bettering society, so absolutist monarchs who said they would improve society
were more likely to face less resistance.

 

Absolutism to the brink of
revolution – There were two major causes of the transition from Absolutism
to the brink of revolution throughout Europe. They were: weakened trust in
monarchies and a lack of representation of the people. These led to
conflict between subjects and their rulers which ended in wars and
revolution. In France, Absolutist Monarchs fell because Louis XIV revoked
the Edict of Nantes and began persecuting protestants and Huguenots. The
countries economy began to decline as Louis continued to try to gain land
and procure power. The threat of the countries imminent bankruptcy put the
country on the verge of revolution. After this, Louis XVI came to power
and there was a large famine causing the death rates of peasants to rise.
Louis XVI heavily taxed peasants and introduced no reforms. This led to
the French Revolution. England was put on the verge of revolution
primarily because of the Charles I. Charles I ignored parliament causing
ever increasing tension between parliament and the crown. There was
conflicted with parliament over foreign policy, taxes, and money as well
as divine right and absolute monarchies. Charles I death especially led to
revolution and the end of Absolutism because it was the first time a
ruling monarch had been tried and executed by his own people. This shocked
Europe and alarmed monarchs because it meant that monarchs could be
overthrown and sent the message that no one should rule absolutely and
everyone will be above the lord. It meant that in England no ruler could
claim absolute power and ignore rule of law.