India, intake of Vitamin D fortified foods also

India, with 1,344,257,369 (1.34 billion) people is the second most populous country in theworld. The figures show that India represents almost 17.85% of the world’s population, whichmeans one out of six people on this planet live in India.With the population growth rate at1.2%, India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030.More than50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35.About 72.2% of the population lives in some 638,000 villages and the rest 27.8% in about5,480 towns and urban agglomerations.1. Introductiona) Vitamin D Deficiency: Indian ScenarioJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:2India is known for its traditional, cultural and lingual diversity and why not? It is a vasttropical country extending from 8.4º N latitude to 37.6° N latitude. Vitamin D deficiency is acommon problem in India due to several factors:1. Changing food fads and food habits contribute to low dietary calcium and Vitamin Dintake.2. High fiber diet containing phosphates and phytates which can deplete Vitamin D stores andincrease calcium requirement.3. With modernization, the number of hours spent indoor have increased thereby preventingadequate sun exposure. This is particularly true in the urban Indians.4. Increased pollution can hamper the ultraviolet rays to adequately synthesize Vitamin D inthe skin.5. Repeated and unplanned, unspaced pregnancies in dietary deficient patients can aggrevateVitamin D deficiency in the mother and the foetus.Table no. 1.1: Vitamin D Deficiency amongst Newborns and mothers50% of the global population suffers Vitamin. D3 deficiency.80% of the Indian population suffers Vitamin. D3 deficiency.Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:3FIG 5.1 Vitamin D Deficiency1.3 Vitamin D3Vitamin D3 enhances calcium absorption and retention, a key nutritional role in supportinghealthy bones, and may play a potential role in cardiovascular, colon and cellular health.Vitamin D levels have been shown to decline with age, due primarily to a reduction in eitherabsorption or metabolism by the liver. Decreased exposure to sunlight, a vegetarian diet, or alow intake of Vitamin D fortified foods also play a role in inadequate Vitamin D levels.Vitamin D3 is born from cholesterol (an interesting steroid molecule with Vitaminal bodyfunctions), please see the graphic belowfig 5.2: Vitamin D3 is born from cholesterolWhat Is The Source?Vitamin D3 is derived from the cholesterol in lanolin, the fat found in wool. Hypoallergenicplant fiber is derived from pine cellulose. Medium chain triglycerides (Vitamin D3 liquidonly) are derived from coconut and palm oil.Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:4Table 1.2: Recommendation of Vitamin d3 intake1.4 MARKET PICTURE IN INDIA: VITAMIN D3Vitamin. D3 market is rocking! The May 2014 MAT (moving annual total) value is Rs. 252crores (Rs. 2520 million) and has registered 40.8% growth in comparison to May 2013 MATvalue (which was Rs. 179 crores market; MAT MAY 2013).Vitamin. D3 is marketed as chewable tablets (biggest segment and fastest growing dosagetype) (Rs. 87 crores May 2014 MAT value), capsules (mainly soft gelatin capsules) andsachets (powder). All contain 60,000 IU/unit.Uprise D3 (Alkem group), Tayo (Eris) and D3 Must (Mankind) are the top three brands indescending order (with MAT May 2014 values of Rs. 22 crores, Rs. 16 crores and Rs. 6.00crores respectively).Vitamin. D3 is used in animal feeds, dietary supplements, drugs and for fortification of foods(like milk and other dairy products, milk mix beverage powders etc).Global 2011 annual market estimate of Vitamin. D3 is USD: 400 million (40 crores USD orapprox. Rs. 2400 crores per annum).Vitamin D3 has an interesting profile. This fat soluble Vitamin is synthesized through aphotochemical reaction in the human skin, and then undergoes interesting chemical changesin the body that are summarized in the below graphic:1.5 Role of Nano Technology In new Drug Delivery SystemNanotechnology is the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation, and application ofmaterials, devices, and systems at the nanometre scale.An ideal drug-delivery systempossesses two elements: the ability to target and to control the drug release.Nanoparticles can be used in targeted drug delivery at the site of disease to improve:Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:5i. the uptake of poorly soluble drugs, the targeting of drugs to a specific site, drugbioavailability. Advantages of Nanoparticles: Increased bioavailability,Doseproportionality, Decreased toxicity, Smaller dosage form (i.e., smaller tablet), Stabledosage forms of drugs which are either unstable or have unacceptably lowbioavailability in non-nanoparticulate dosage forms.ii. Increased active agent surface area results in a faster dissolution of the active agent inan aqueous environment, such as the human body. Faster dissolution generallyequates with greater bioavailability, smaller drug doses, less toxicity.iii. Reduction in fed/fasted variability.Nano-implants will be used in the not-too distant future for treating cancer. Among the firstnanoscale devices to show promise in anti-cancer therapeutics and drug delivery arestructures called nanoshells, which NanoMarkets believes may afford a degree of controlnever before seen in implantable drug delivery products.Despite these advances, the vast majority of consumers prefer an oral drug delivery system toimplantable or injectables. With this in mind, various development groups are working toenhance traditional oral delivery systems with nanoengineered improvements. There aresome areas where nano-enhanced drugs could make a big difference in increasing oralbioavailability and reducing undesirable side effects. By increasing bioavailability,nanoparticles can increase the yield in drug development and more importantly may helptreat previously untreatable conditions.1.6 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:1. To know the perception of the doctors and the retailers about Vitamin D3.2. To know the acceptance of Vitamin D3 by the doctors and retailers.Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:64.1 Research Methodology:”Marketing Research means the systematic gathering, gathering, recording, analyzing of dataabout problems systematic conduct of research requires:Type of research design: The researcher had undertaken a “descriptive research” as his mainobjective was to know the perception and acceptance of new drug delivery system of VitaminD3.4.2 Data CollectionPrimary data is the data that is collected for the first time for a specific purpose whilesecondary data is the existing data already available somewhere.PRIMARY DATA: In this research, the researcher has collected the primary data throughquestionnaire meeting personally. For collecting the primary data, Researcher had donesurvey with the help of structured questionnaire.SECONDARY DATA: The Secondary data was gathered through different source such asthe website of company, journal, magazines, etc. In this project the researcher has gathereddata through website, from some other source.Research instrumentQuestionnaires are the most common research instrument used in descriptive type of survey.The research instrument used by the researcher was Questionnaire. People were interviewed.Based on the interview conducted, respective questionnaires were filled by the researcher andthese questionnaires were then filed and kept for future reference purpose.Sampling design:Sampling unit/Target group: The respondents were doctors and chemistSample size: The research was carried out on 75 doctors and 50 Chemists from Pune Region.Sampling method: Convenience sampling.Sampling technique: It refers to the definite plan adopted by the research for obtaining thedata from the respondents; the technique adopted here is to gather data from sampling unit,questionnaire method and interview.Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:7Statistical tools: The various statistical tools for the analysis and interpretation of data aresimple percentage method and Pie charts.Discussion:Average number of prescription with Vitamin D3/daySr.No.OptionsNo. ofrespondentsPercentage1 1 to 5 23 30.662 6 to 10 14 18.673 11 to 15 19 25.344 16 to 20 6 85 Above 20 13 17.33total 75 100Preference of prescription of Vitamin D3MostlypreferredCan`tsayLeastpreferredTablets 18 4 2Capsules 26 0 1Injections 9 5 3Sachets 31 0 1Inhalers 4 2 3If Any other__drops1 0 0Table 8.1: Dosage form of Vitamin D3.Tablets(60000 IU)oral sprays(60000 IU)Sachets(60000 IU)Injections(60000 IU)nanotechnologyliquid (60000IU)Absorption 16 14 14 15 18Efficacy 15 21 12 12 5Convenience 23 3 1 5 4Economical 24 2 9 2 3Palatability 17 11 11 6 40510152025Prescription with Vitamin D3 per dayNo. ofrespondents051015202530351826931414050202 13130MostlypreferredCan`tsayLeastpreferredPreference of prescription ofJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:8Fig 4.1: Dosage form of Vitamin D3.Table 13.1: Brands in Sachets.Sr. No. Brands Responses1 Calshine 60k 392 Mashyne 173 Cal D 84 Malasit D3 75 Bond Dk 116 Uprise D3 60k 587 Lumia 60 k 38 D-Shine 49 Shelcal 710 De-Pura 311 Nano D3 412 Tuyo 60k 613 Cap DV 60k 214 Calcirol 3Table 6.1: Brands in Capsules.Sr. No Brands No. of respondents1 Shelcal-D 182 Mashyne 213 Uprise D3 60k 484 Hi-D 60 k 170 20 40 60 80AbsorptionEfficacyConvenienceEconomicalAvailabilityPalatability161523241917142132311141219711151252661854364Tablets (60000 IU)oral sprays (60000 IU)Sachets (60000 IU)Injections (60000 IU)Dosage form of Vitamin D3Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:9Fig 7.1: Vitamin D3 available in Nano-technology.Fig 8.1: New Drug Delivery system of Vitamin D3 (60,000 IU) which have Nano -Technology vitamins.0 10 20 30YesNoCant say281715Vitamin D3 available in Nano-technologyYesNoCant say61435BRANDS OF VITAMIN D3 AVAILABLE IN NANO-TECHNOLOGYArachitol Nano-(abbot)D-Liquid DropsHi-60 kChewable FormNano-D3, 2D-LiquidDrops, 4BRANDS OF NDS IN VIT.D3Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:10Fig 18.1: Indications Nano-technology D3 is given to the patients.Discussion of Questions with ChemistFig 1.1: Prescription of Vitamin D3 you get per day.2) What is the price range of Vitamin D3 available with you?Table 2.1: Price range of Vitamin D3.Sr. No. Price Range No. of responses Percentage1 20 to 30 9180102030211474 3 312Indications No. of RespondentsJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:112 30 to 40 12243 40 to 50 24485 Above 50 510Total 50 100.00Fig 2.1: Price range of Vitamin D3.Inference: From the above chart it clearly indicates that that 40 to 50 is the highest pricerange.3)What are the different brands of Vitamin D3 prescribed by doctor?Table 3.1: Different brands of Vitamin D3 prescribed by doctor.051015202520 to 30 30 to 40 40 to 50 Above 50912245Price range of Vitamin D3No. of responsesJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:12Sr. No. Brands No. of Responses1 Calshine 60k 42 Mashyne 53 Uprise D3 60k 194 Lumia 60 k 25 D-Shine 26 Shelcal 87 Nano D3 28 Tuyo 60k 79 Calcirol 1010 Arachitol 211 Cipcal 412 Alkem 213 D3-shine spray 214 Callgen 215 Calcigen 416 D3-HD 60 k 417 D-Rise 60 k 9Fig 3.1: Different brands of Vitamin D3 prescribed by doctor.Inference: From the above chart it clearly indicates that Uprise D3 60 k is the highest brandsof Vitamin D3 prescribed by doctor.4) Rate the brands according to your preference: 1-6Table 4.1: Brands according to your preference.05101520Different BrandsJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:13Fig 4.1: Brands according to your preference.Inference: From the above chart it clearly indicates thatUprise D3 60 k is the highest ratedbrands of Vitamin D3.5) Give the top brand name for each:13830 0125 521 103403701430323 3503214060 023030 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Rate the brands???1 ???2 ???3 ???4 ???5 ???6Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:14Table no. 5.1: top brand nameDosage Brand name ResponsesTabletsTayo 60 k 2Uprise- D3 60 k 5Shelcal 1Lumia 60 k 2CapsulesUprise- D3 60 k 4Mayshyne 1InjectablesUprise- D3 60 k 3Mankind 1Arachitol 5SachetsD-rise 60 k 1Mayshyne 3Calcirol 5LiquidUprise- D3 2Calcimax 3Nano-D3 1D-pura 1Shelcal 2Arachitol 2Oral SprayD-Shine 2Uprise- D3 1Fig 5.1 : top brand name6) What are the upcoming new ways of administration in Vitamin D3: (Tick)251241315135231 12 2 210 1 2 3 4 5 6Tayo 60 kUprise- D3 60 kShelcalLumia 60 kUprise- D3 60 kMayshyneUprise- D3 60 kMankindArachitolD-rise 60 kMayshyneCalcirolUprise- D3CalcimaxNano-D3D-puraShelcalArachitolD-ShineUprise- D3Tablets Capsules Injectables Sachets Liquid Oral SprayTop brandsJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:15Table 6.1: The upcoming new ways of administration in Vitamin D3.ways of administration ResponsesCreams 1Vitamin D3 Oil 9Vitamin D3 topical patch15Vitamin D3 oral spray18Any other pls specify 0Fig 6.1: The upcoming new ways of administration in Vitamin D3.6.2 FINDINGS: Doctorsi. 1 to 10 is the average number of prescription with Vitamin D3 per day.ii. tablets and sachets are mostly preferred for prescribing Vitamin D3 dosageform.iii. Doctors sometimes face deficiency of Vitamin D3 patients and the highestnumbers of patients are between 6-10 per day.iv. Doctors prescribe Vitamin D3 injections once in a month.v. The highest dosage form of Vitamin D3 is tablets for their properties inConvenience in carrying and economical and sachets due to its efficacy.05101520Creams Vitamin D3OilVitamin D3topicalpatchVitamin D3oral sprayAny otherpls specifyupcoming new ways of administrationResponcesJournal of Management Research and Review ISSN:16vi. Uprise D3 60 k is the most prescribing brand.vii. Due to most availability of tablets, doctors prefer a specific brand of VitaminD3 over other brands.viii. Vitamin D3 patch is the New Drug Delivery system apart from that isavailable in the marketix. Calshine 60 k is the most preferred brand in sachets.x. Uprise D3 60k is the most preferred brand in capsules.xi. D-liquid drops are the new drug delivery.xii. 3-4 weeks Nano-technology D3 is given to the patientsxiii. Osteoporosis is the highest indication in which Nano-technology D3 are givento the patients.6.3 FINDINGS: chemistsi. 1 to 10 is the number of prescription received per day of Vitamin D3 .ii. 6 to 10 is the highest number of prescription of Vitamin D3 andcombination per day:iii. 40 to 110 is the highest price range.iv. Uprise D3 60 k is the highest brands of Vitamin D3 prescribed by doctor.v. Uprise D3 60 k is the highest rated brands of Vitamin D3.vi. Tablet is the highest dosage form of Vitamin D3.vii. Vitamin D3 topical patch are the upcoming new ways of administration inVitamin D3.Conclusion:Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:17i. The above study reveals that people are not so aware of the new drug deliverysystems in india.ii. They always follow the traditional way for medication.iii. So there is a need to create awareness about new drug delivery systems likenanotechnology to the Doctors, chemists in every area.Journal of Management Research and Review ISSN:18