Molecular threaten the safety and quality of foods

Molecular
techniques have a growing impact on detecting food adulteration and authenticity.
As one kind of food detection methods, the application of molecular techniques
have been researched all over the world, and adopted as in the detection of
source, material, component, additive, objectionable constituent, microorganism,
and pesticides (1.1) in food and food products.The development of the PCR
(polymerase chain reaction) technique in 1986 allowed rapid expansion of
distinct areas of molecular biology. Molecular techniques has significantly
picked up by the Medical research and 
lead the way to the development of techniques that have been used  progressively by the food industry for the
identification, characterization, and source attribution studies for
microorganisms involved in the manufacture of fermented foods or those that
threaten the safety and quality of foods (1). Along with the time the
application domain of molecular method also will be widest.The
molecular technique involve use of DNA which is present in majority of cells,
carry identical information for specific individual, having high chemical and
thermal stability makes it suitable target for analyses of food products (1.2
-14-chapter8).The molecular techniques include three major step viz.DNA
isolation or extraction, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of DNA
with appropriate marker and detection of amplified product defined by marker.
The resulting sequence compared with the adequate control or references (1.3chap8).

 PCR technique successful applied for accurate
and reliable method for food adulteration authentication.            Adulteration Means “deliberate and
intentional substitution ,addition, tampering, or misrepre-sensation of food
and food ingredient, or food packaging; or false misleading statement made
about a product, for economic gain”(2). Adulterant detection and authenticity
testing is important for 1.value assessment 2.to detect fraudulent substitution
of given species with the similar low value product, 3. Warranting consumer
choice like high quality product, religious conviction (halal/vegetarian),or
health concern. This has become necessary with reports of adulterated food,
such as the peanut-almond protein scandal in UK 2015, horse-meat scandal in the
UK in 2013.Additionally, consumption of adulterated products containing,
undeclared constituents may cause intoxication or problems such as allergy in
sensitized individuals, (3,4)chronic health problem like paralysis, cancer
(mineral oil), weakening of the immune system. Adulteration
not only alters the composition of the food item but it increases the
impurities thus making them imperfect for the consumption. (5)