NAME: Good ergonomics practices achieves increased efficiency in

NAME: ELABOR DEBORAH

MATRIC NO: 16PAC01413

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

DEPARTMENT: M.SC INDUSTRIAL
RELATIONS AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

COURSE: SEMINAR

LECTURER-IN-CHARGE: PROF. AKINNUSI,
AND DR OGUNNAIKE 

TOPIC:  ASSESSING THE STATUS OF ERGONOMICS AND THE
HEALTH IMPLICATIONS IN AN ORGANIZATION IN NIGERIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

These study gives a broad
content and information to ergonomics study in workplace. The information is
designed to help ergonomist, health and safety specialist understand the
importance the importance of proper ergonomics designs in organizations. The sole
purpose of ergonomics is to fit the task or responsibilities to the worker or
labourer, not the employee to the task of the organization. Good ergonomics practices
achieves increased efficiency in the organization, and also improve the wellbeing
and safety of employees, higher work satisfaction and better compliance with
government regulations. The accepted ergonomics rule that is supposed to be
connected to work environment incorporates aiming for dynamic versus static
work, optimizing work surface heights, avoiding overload of muscles, avoiding unnatural
postures, and training individuals to use the workplace, facility, and
equipment properly. The study of Ergonomics is to explain ways organizations
can contribute to efficiencies and effectiveness, how it can be evaluated
overtime or become embedded as part of an improved system.

The study is to
examine the awareness of ergonomics among workers in Nigeria. The reason for
this study is to carry out research on the level of awareness of ergonomics,
discover if employees encounter ergonomic indications and find out if there is
ergonomic training is present and different measures to guarantee solid and
profitable workforce.

This study summarizes the knowledge regarding ergonomic
and musculoskeletal disorder in organization. It is however, known that perceived
muscular tension is an early stage/sign of musculoskeletal disorder which can
be controlled through extensive and proper ergonomics designs. However,
Individuals and management seek for ways of improving their importance and
productivity on a daily basis. However,
proper ad effective management of ergonomics will bring about great productive
in the organizations and encourage employees work safely and promote
good health in the organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 ERGONOMICS
was gotten from the Greek word, which is Ergo means work and Nomos
means law. Ergonomics is defined as the study of the design of work of
employees at the work environment, gear, machine, instrument, item, condition,
and framework must be taken into consideration of the individual’s physical,
physiological, biomechanical, and mental capacities and advances the sustainability
and productivity of labour while ensuring the security, wellbeing, and
prosperity of the specialists (Fernandez and Marley, 1998). By and large, the
objective of ergonomics is to fit the assignment to the individual, not the
person to the undertaking. However, Ergonomics can be said the scientific
discipline that is concerned with the comprehension of collaborations within a
group of individual and different segments of a context, and the calling that
applies hypothesis, standards, techniques and information to configuration with
a specific end goal to upgrade human prosperity and general framework execution
comprehension (International Ergonomics Association (IEA) in 2000).

The deficiencies of Ergonomic in any
organization may not immediately bring about body pain but as time goes on the
body’s ability to adapt will be begin fail as a result of musculoskeletal disorders.
Ergonomics is the study that shows how functioning conditions, particularly the
plan of gear and furniture, so as to enable individuals, to work all the more
effectively, has accepted significance in work environment with expanding rate
of musculoskeletal wounds (Currie, Ritmiller 8c Robinson, 1998).
Ergonomics in an organization should not been seen as a problem but rather as
giving solutions to problems that may rise in the organization in respect to
workers health. Industries in developed economy have successfully begin to
implement ergonomic solutions in their organizations in order to inform
workers’ of the hazards or risks. This incorporates changing existing
equipment, taking off enhancements in work rehearses and acquiring new
instruments or different gadgets to aid the creation procedure. The changes
have reduced physical demands, reduce avoidable engagements around the
organization, lowered the rates injury, compensation costs, and reduced
employee turnover in the organization. In most cases, increases work efficiency
and productivity.

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 World Health Organization states that a
healthy workplace is that environment where employees and executives team up to
make use of a continuous development process to safeguard and promote the wellbeing
and safety of workers in the organization and the sustainability of the work
environment. These includes, but not limited to;

ü  The welfare and safety in
the physical workplace;

ü  The welfare, safety and success
in the psychosocial place of work as well as the course of action of labour and
work atmosphere and culture;

ü  The employees welfare resources
in the work environs; and

ü  The techniques for taking importance
in a team so as to improve the strong point of experts, their relations and
diverse personalities from the group.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Research and/or survey
has been conducted to ascertain the level of ergonomics awareness in Nigeria organizations
comprising of employees from various sectors in the economy. The information
and use of ergonomics in organizations is of vital importance. It is however,
concluded that of 100 respondents, 3.4 percent of the respondent are aware of ergonomics
signifying that there the awareness of ergonomics is very low. Understanding
the terms and benefits of ergonomics appears to be lacking in most organization
and results to the discomposure and health threats plaguing the Nigerian workforces.
The work however, sustain and ensure healthy and productive workforce.

 

RESEARCH
OBJECTIVE

The
following are the objective for this study:

1
to examine the level of awareness of ergonomics in organizations in Nigeria
today

2
to examine the effect of ergonomics on individual employees

3
ascertain
ergonomics education and training on organization and its employees.

 

RESEARCH QUESTION

This
research questions are identified for the purpose of serving as catalyst for
designing the questions for the open-ended interview. The driving questions
are:

1
To what extent as ergonomics practice be accepted and embeded into
organizations in Nigeria

2
In what way can ergonomics affect both the organization and the employees
positively or negatively?

3
what are the challenges faced by organization when accepting or embracing
ergonomics

 

 

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO:
Ergonomics is not important to organizations in Nigeria

H1:
Ergonomics is of vital importance to organizations in Nigeria

HO:
Ergonomics has no impact on employees and the organization as a whole

H1:
Ergonomics has great impact on employees and on the organization generally

HO:
The practice of ergonomics has no benefits to organizations in Nigeria

H1:
The practice of ergonomics has beneficial attributes to organizations in
Nigeria

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Ergonomics
study is necessitated by the urge and need for organizations to develop a safe
and healthy work environment. The following are the significance of the study:

1
It creates awareness on the needs and importance of ergonomics practices to
organization in Nigeria of which both the organization and the employees benefits
from it.

2
   its
maintains safe and healthy physical working environment

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 The study focuses on
the management of work environment. To achieve this, we look at the causes,
effects and solutions to ergonomics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 The
3rd edition of the international labour organizations Encyclopedia, which was available
in the 1983, says ergonomics was shortened in one article that was four pages. Meanwhile,
there has been extreme changes in laying prominence and accepting the
interrelationships in safety and health issues. In the last years, almost every
outlet involved in production and rendering of service expended much strength
or call it energy in enhancing productivity and quality in their respective
organizations. This process called restructuring brought about practical
experience and vividly explains that production and the value derived are
directly related to the design of good working conditions. One straight forward
economical degree of production is the costs derived from absenteeism which may
be as a result of illness caused by bad working conditions. To increase or
enhance productivity and quality and also avoid absenteeism is by giving
attention to the implementation of good ergonomics practices in the
organization.

The word “ergonomics” originates from the Greek
“nomos” which means run, and “thus” which means work. This
recommended ergonomics is to create “rules” for a more   progressive, imminent idea of outline. As
opposed to “corrective ergonomics”, the possibility of forthcoming
ergonomics depends on the application of ergonomic proposals which at the same
time think about benefit edges (Laurig 1992). Corrective ergonomics is said to
be understanding of all work implementations and endorsements that needs
attention, paid to capacity boundaries in order to prevent health hazards.

The approach was deduced from practical
experience and reinforced by the results of occupational hygiene and ergonomics
research. However, prospective ergonomics is seen as looking out for substitutes
in work strategies to prevent weakness and overtiredness on the workers and in
order to promote or enhance human productivity for the benefit and profiting of
the organization and the employees, which also includes equipment design in the
organization. Therefore, Forthcoming ergonomics cut across
various disciplinary approach of scientists and experts from an extensive
variety of fields joined by a similar objective, and one a player in a general
reason for a cutting edge comprehension of word related wellbeing and wellbeing
(UNESCO 1992).

Ergonomics is the
science of making things comfortable and efficient. The more ergonomics is put
in place the more efficient the tool, task or system is. This makes
employees happy, work in healthy environment, a streamlined system and a lower
bottom line. Injuries
gotten from musculoskeletal disorders, such as muscle strains, sprains and
repetitive motion disorders, can be a continuous pain for both the organization
and the employees. And although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
has no defined standard for ergonomics, an organization can be cited for
ergonomics-related issues under the General Duty Clause. The values of any
ergonomics program can make a difference or bring about health change for
everyone in an organization, and this includes office personnel, drivers,
construction workers and manufacturing employees.

 Creating
a platform for Ergonomics will achieve the following:

Ø  Decrease employees compensation and health insurance
costs: Ergonomics-related
wounds have a tendency to be long haul, making a consistent deplete on
specialists’ pay and therapeutic expenses. The rundown of measurements assisting
the cost-investment funds that outcome from a lessening of musculo-skeletal
disorder (MSD) wounds is nearly as long as the time it takes for back damage to
recuperate.

Ø 
 Improvement of DART rate: An ergonomics program keeps your specialists sound.
MSDs represented 32 percentage of the wounds and ailment issues in 2014 that
needed days from work, and specialists who maintained a MSD required a middle
of 13 days to recover before coming back to work. Specialists who could come
back to the activity required diminished time or exchange to a post or role
that puts less strain on their damage.

Ø 
Less turnover and increased employee
satisfaction: Ergonomics program in workplace enhances representative’s
spirit and profitability. Independent of the work setting, regardless of  it’s been an office or assembling spot,
representatives who are less exhausted and can work without inconvenience are
more beneficial, more ready and glad. Notwithstanding, cheerful workers have a
tendency to be more faithful to their organizations. A current report by
financial experts at the University of Warwick found that bliss prompted a 12
percent spike in efficiency, while despondent specialists demonstrated 10
percent less beneficial.

Ø 
Help prevent
other incidents and injuries: Laborers who
encounter distress at work may discover alternate ways or workarounds that could
bring about occurrences and wounds, for example, slips, falls and slashes.
Executing an ergonomics program and urging laborers to report ergonomic issues
early forestalls MSDs and also other regular working environment incident

At the point when a worker gets sick
or get harmed, it is imperative to get such individual back to a state where he
or she will have the capacity to complete their obligations. Making working
situations agreeable for representatives is the key factor in having a
beneficial workforce. What at that point is ergonomics? It is about nature
inside which one works and how that individual can finish assignments inside
it. The significance of ergonomics in the work environment lies in every
worker’s capacity to work inside a space that is perfect for them to carry out
their employments well.

On
WebMD.com, it is disclosed that consideration regarding ergonomics is found
through setting up one’s workstation such that it reduces danger of cerebral
pains, eyestrains, back torment, neck torment and even bursitis or ligament
issues that are regularly connected to doing likewise errands again and again.

 

 
       Meaning of Ergonomics

Covenant
university

University
of lagos

     N

    %

   N

   %

Science dealing with the
relationship of work in relations to the work environment in which it is
carried out

25

83

29

67

Outline or alteration of the workplace
to match human qualities and capacities

22

73

24

56

Designing and arranging
equipment the employees use so that employees and equipment interact more
efficiently and be safe.

28

93

37

86

 
   It is related to economics

1

2

 
     I do not know

1

3

3

7

 Source: Adeyemi O.A

This table
explains the respondent from distinct institutions have similar view on the
meaning of ergonomics.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN

 Ergonomics design has great notoriety in
research within a wide range of areas including; comprehensive design,
transportation and especially vehicle ergonomics, wellbeing and prosperity,
development ergonomics, human displaying and individuals’ enthusiastic
engagement with items. The exploration and its consultancy exercises effect on
industry and its end clients, having a beneficial outcome to individuals’
lives.

METHODOLOGY

This methodology
was chosen to suit the approach and to discover the four research questions
stated above, ergonomics is seen as socially positioned for both research and other
practice (Hignett, 2001). This method enables researcher to explore by having:

 1. Free access to material and information
through intelligent meetings, with the adaptability to build up the poll both
amid a single meeting and all through the study.

2. A comprehensive viewpoint to think about the
decent variety of the points of view consideration by scholastics and experts
engaged with ergonomics.

Noy (1999)
distinguished information and yield factors affecting the improvement of
ergonomics in the worldwide, social, monetary and political settings. The
sources of info incorporate the expert commitment by means of the national
social orders, however the most grounded input is the scholarly framework, with
building, brain research and life sciences as yet being the primary feeder
disciplines. Nonetheless, Moray (1994) recommended that there should have been
a significantly nearer association with other related controls, for instance:
mechanical brain science, social brain research, human studies, and humanism

.

Hospital
Ergonomics

·        
Attempt and recognize the qualities of the
medicinal services industry and how these might effect on the act of ergonomics
in healing facilities.

·        
To talk about these qualities with regards to
the writing and information from the ergonomists contextual analysis. ”

·        
To utilize a down to earth issue (manual dealing
with dangers in word related treatment) as a contextual analysis to demonstrate
the benefit of utilizing a subjective way to deal with distinguish new thoughts
and imaginative arrangements in a mind boggling circumstance

Four methodologies in ergonomics
where evaluated and this incorporates: macro ergonomics, participatory
ergonomics; exploratory successive information examination; and francophone
(ergonomics in French talking territories, e. g. France, Belgium, Quebec). However,
Hospitals present complex setting in honing ergonomics. This is mostly because
of the hierarchical structure (with various expert and administrative lines)
and furthermore profoundly business. Inside ergonomics Sinclair (1995) proposed
that three information composes were utilized: observational (counting test
techniques), information base (record looking), and subjective strategies. For
subjective strategies he included polls, meetings, and positioning/rating, and
basic occurrence systems. He distinguished a consistent theme for these as
containing ‘any technique that draws its information from the mental substance
of individuals’ heads. He suggested gathering information with no less than two
extraordinary, free techniques to upgrade legitimacy. This is like the idea of
triangulation and will be come back to in the area on information
investigation. A contention against subjective techniques incorporates the
characteristic human inclinations in any case, this feedback could be leveled
at target information and additionally subjective information.

 

In the course of the most recent 50 years the
act of ergonomics has changed and with it the models of training. Some of these
models will be surveyed, yet I will begin this section by saying that I consider
ergonomics to be a socially arranged practice (Hignett, 2001a: 62). Ergonomics
divisions are typically situated inside one of the foundation (or feeder)
scholarly trains. This has brought about a various calling where some
ergonomists may see themselves as to right off the bat have a place with 45
another calling (build/analyst), with ergonomics being performed under the
sponsorship of that foundation (or first) calling (Noy, 1999)

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Organizing training
programs will go a long way towards expanding safety awareness among the staffs
of any organization. This includes the managers and supervisors, designers,
buyers, mechanics, and specialist or workers who carry out the jobs. A good and
decent ergonomics training program will show workers the appropriate use of apparatus,
utensils, and machine controls and also show the right approach in carrying out
their jobs. Conveyors or carts, lift tables and list assists, can help in
reducing load weight, and minimize incorrect lifting’s and potential injury.

 

RECOMMENDATION

Employer should recommend
the necessity for ergonomics program at the organization, the program should begin
with planning the program and the goals, and put it into action. Workers who
are aware of ergonomic risk factors should be given chances to make suggestions
and input which can be very helpful in designing improved workplace and help to
reduce MSD hazards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Adeyemi, A. O. (2017). Case Study of Ergonomics
Awareness among Library Staff of Two Universities in South-Western Nigeria. ACADEMIC
JOURNAL ARTICLE, 1 and 2.
Andres, V. (2014). Why Ergonomics In The Workplace
Is So Important. indeprndence incorporated, 5.
Andres, V. (2014). Why Ergonomics In The Workplace
Is So Important. independence incorporated, 3.
Christopher, N. (2017). Pioneer Bachelor Degree:
Citation Analysis of Covenant University Students Research Projects. Seminars/Research,
1.
goldtouch. (2014). The Benefits of Ergonomics in the
Workplace. ergonomics, 6.
Hignett, S. (2016). Using Qualitative Methodology in
Ergonomics: theoretical background and theoretical background and. ergonomics
, 100 and 104 .
Hornik, B. (2016). know the benefits of an ergonomics
program. safety + health, 4.
Middlesworth, M. (2012 ). 5 Proven Benefits of
Ergonomics in the Workplace. Ergonomics plus , 5.
OSHA. (2000). Occupational Safety and Health
Administration. Ergonomics: The Study of Work, 2 and 3.
university, T. o. (2015). The Unexpected Benefits of
Good Ergonomics. spine research institute , 3.
Vedder, W. L. (2005). encyclopedia of occupational
health and safety . ERGONOMICS, 1,3 and 5.