NETWORK all have a mean intelligence (AD 85

NETWORK Foundation

Introduction

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Dyslexia is one of the most common ailments a person may
have, and more specifically a child. There is a non-uniform brain function
with insufficient performance in some areas and sufficient for others. It was
initially considered that dyslexia only affects the written language. It then
turned out to be able to influence oral speech, text comprehension, and even
mathematical skills. It is worth noting that dyslexic students do not have
reduced intelligence3. They almost all have a mean intelligence (AD 85 – 115)
or higher (AD> 115). As to how to diagnose and deal with dyslexia,
scientists seem to disagree.

What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a neurobiological and neurodevelopmental nature
with the hereditary predisposition. It affects the cognitive processes of the
brain regarding the acquisition of reading, writing, spelling skills.
Researchers note that there are many possible causes in terms of Dyslexia,
including genetic factors. It can also be caused by a combination of
difficulties in phonological processing, working memory, rapid recall, and
sequence as well as automation of basic skills. Along with the above issues,
the effort made by people with Dyslexia to move into life in a dyslexic
environment, which is extremely inhospitable to the subject, in particular, is
intense. There is absolutely no relationship between intelligence,
socio-economic status, and dyslexia. In addition, the different socio-cultural
environments, as well as the choices in education, have a significant impact on
the opportunities presented in the lives of people with dyslexia. Causes of
Dyslexia. The lack of phonological perception as well as the difficulty
of phonological processing is considered by many scientists to be the primary
factor of Dyslexia. This is often referred to as a central deficit. However,
many researchers have talked about individual deficits such as the problems
with the rapid recall and the lack of ability to process visual information
such as spelling. These deficits may occur individually, as is the case with
the simple deficit case, or together, as is the case with the multiple deficit
cases. As research continues, many would agree that Dyslexia is a
developmental syndrome with a neurological and genetic basis.

Strengths and Weaknesses of  People with Dyslexia

Although there is a clear concern about the fact that
Dyslexia appears to be a learning disability, however, the research has also
highlighted the positive elements that flow from it. Many of the people with
dyslexia have particular skills in architecture, engineering, and other
creative arts. Good performances also appear in acting as well as in
humanitarian professions. If these people are given the appropriate help then
they can have great successes and achieve higher education degrees. Many of
them have already done so. Regardless of intelligence and
motivation, children with dyslexia cannot learn the conventional way of
teaching. However, if the dyslexia of these children is diagnosed early, then
they can successfully enter the learning process through a specialized,
oriented, structured and systematic educational process. These children will
always need more support and encouragement.

The dictum of the word “Dyslexia” reveals a
difficulty in the use of words and not just in their reading. The term
“dyslexia” refers to a more complex and multifactorial syndrome than
to a simple reading problem. In many European countries, the term
“Dyslexia” refers more to problems related to phonological awareness.
In others, including Greece, the term is often misused as an umbrella for the
wide range of learning difficulties.

Diagnosis

There is a non-uniform brain function with insufficient
performance in some areas and sufficient for others. It was initially
considered that dyslexia only affects the written language. It then turned out
to be able to influence oral speech, text comprehension, and even mathematical
skills. It is worth noting that dyslexic students do not have reduced
intelligence3. They almost all have a mean intelligence (AD 85 – 115) or higher
(AD> 115). As to how to diagnose and deal with dyslexia, scientists seem to
disagree. They agree, however, on the characteristics of dyslexic students,
some of which are:

Difficulties in spelling
(Discography)

Difficulties in reading (Dysgnathia)

Difficulties in Writing

Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

Dismantling

Problems in spelling concern:

omissions, replacements,
contradictions, additions to graphs and/or syllables, and/or words difficulty
in automating the grammatical rules they have already learned and applied them,
above all in free writing

difficulty in using punctuation

difficulty in using chapters at the
beginning of sentences or names.

Dystonia

The problems of reading concern two
different axes:

A) the decoding mechanism, that is,
how the symbols (charts) are associated with each other in order to make words:

omissions, replacements,
contradictions, additions to graphs and/or syllables, and/or words

slow reading rate

many pauses, intermittent reading,
losing his position, reading wrong

B) reading comprehension, independent
of the decoding mechanism:

unable to recall what he read,
whether it is about information or the exact vocabulary

difficulty in drawing conclusions or
speculating on the issues he has read

insufficient ability to generalize
and use already recorded knowledge to answer questions on the text read.

Dysanagnostics involves difficulties
in the mechanism of decoding symbols and/or understanding content reading. The
individual, for example, may experience difficulties either in one or the
other. Many times, however, it can face difficulties in both reading skills and
understanding of what reads. However, it is important that not all children
acquire reading skills during the same time periods. Some children may begin to
read by 3-year-olds and other children will be able to automate this skill (and
not necessarily fine-tune it) after 12 years.

Difficulties in encoding and decoding
the language are improved and gradually smoothened, never surpassing them. At
older ages, while problems seem to be “overcome”, they usually
reappear when the teen is tired, stressed, and/or when time limits are reached.

Difficulties in Writing

It concerns the difficulty in the
written structure and formulation. In the way, the child organizes and
translates to the written level the new-incoming information and acquired
knowledge.

Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

Learning Difficulties in Mathematics
may coexist with Problems of Dysortography and/or Anagnost BUT refer to a
different neurodevelopmental disorder. They may have the same difficulties in
understanding mathematical concepts and the problems they are reading. The
difficulty that a child may have in reading comprehension can affect or coexist
with problems in understanding mathematical problems. This is why Learning
Difficulties in Mathematics does not – arbitrarily – entail difficulties in
encoding and decoding the language.

 

The above difficulties do not fall
due to low cognitive potential, vision problems or inadequate training. These
diagnostic criteria are based on the fact that the specific difficulties of the
child are significantly lower than expected for their chronological age,
general cognitive ability and the school class they are attending.

Effects and emotional effects

Dyslexia is found throughout the
world irrespective of culture or language and affects about 8% of the
population who is experiencing a syndrome that in many cases can inhibit the
process of schooling with 2-4% of the population being seriously affected by
it.

In class at the time of reading,
copying from the table or spelling (in Primary), the student tends to be
anxious, can not follow the order of other children, may create a
“situation” to avoid reading or writing, becomes physically anxious,
and can present stuttering. Difficulties in the reading and/or writing process
can often be hidden behind a problematic behavior whether it concerns anxiety/mobility
or problematic attention, lack of participation and in the classroom. It is,
therefore, necessary to ascertain whether the child has a disruptive behavior
primarily or secondary.

Whatever it may be, it is not
possible for someone to experience so many years of failure at the school level
without it being detrimental to him. Lack of self-confidence, as well as low
self-esteem, are often the consequences of dyslexia. There are serious
emotional implications for a student who is unable to develop effective skills
and strategies in key areas of the school curriculum due to Dyslexia. As poor
performance in school can be combined with distraction, laziness, lack of
maturity and aversion to the school environment, this mixture often adversely
affects self-esteem and motivation for learning.

The same happens when parents and
teachers are in a disagreement about how to interpret and manage this learning
disability. Many people with dyslexia report that they often experience verbal
and physical violence by their peers, which causes them defensive and secretive
behavior, thus avoiding being exposed.

People with dyslexia are so
accustomed to making a mistake that they often avoid taking risks, thus losing
confidence in themselves. They often underestimate their abilities and
knowledge and they seem to think they can not do anything good because they
just face some difficulty in writing, spelling, and reading.

 

Difficulties in following
instructions and sequence of events. An analogous case is dyscalculia. In 1961,
R. Cohn proposed the term dwarfism to attribute the situation in which a
student has difficulties in learning mathematics while he has no low
intelligence. The Czech neuroscientist Kosc defined (1974) the diminishing as
follows:

 “Developmental dyscrasimia is a structural
disorder of mathematical abilities which is based on a genetic or inherent
disorder of certain parts of the brain – parts that are the direct
anatomic-physiological substrate of the appropriate age maturation of
mathematical abilities – without a simultaneous disturbance of general mental
functions “.

 Children with a mathematical doublette have
not been performing satisfactorily, while other lessons have been. They note
omissions, conversions, and replacements when writing and reading numbers or confusing
mathematical symbols. They fail to understand and recall mathematical concepts
and algorithms needed to solve problems. They cannot do anything. They cannot
memorize numerical data, they have difficulty in orientation difficulties in
recalling a series of events.

Appropriate font for readers with dyslexia

The font includes regular, bold,
oblique, and bold style. It is constantly updated and improved on the basis of
data from dyslexic users. There are no restrictions on the use of OpenDyslexic.

Experiment

In two experiments, the claim was
tested that the font “Dyslexie”, specifically designed for people with
dyslexia, eases reading performance of children with dyslexia. Three questions
were investigated.  Does the Dyslexie
font lead to faster and/or more accurate reading? Do children have a preference
for the Dyslexie font? And, is font preference related to reading performance?
In Experiment 1, children with dyslexia did not read text written in Dyslexie
font faster or more accurately than in Arial font. The majority preferred
reading in Arial and preference was not related to reading performance. In Experiment
2, children and without dyslexia read word lists in three different font types
.Words written in Dyslexie font were not read faster or more accurately.
Moreover, participants showed a preference for the fonts Arial and Times New
Roman rather than Dyslexie, and again, preference was not related to reading
performance. These experiments clearly justify the conclusion that the Dyslexie
font neither benefits nor impedes the reading process of children with and
without dyslexia.