Policy minimum condition of the quality of life

Policy Review on Lebak
Siliwangi Infrastructures

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1.      Literature
Review

a.       Specific
Definition

Based
on Law Number 1 Year 2011 on Housing and Settlement Area, slum housing is a
housing that experience quality decrease of function as a place of dwelling,
while slum settlements are inadequate settlements due to building irregularity,
high building density, and quality of buildings and infrastructures that are
not eligible. Slum areas are one of the problems often faced by developing
cities as the impact of high levels of urbanization. People moved from rural to
city to expect a more decent income, but in reality they could not get good enough
jobs to make money that was expected to meet the needs of their lives and their
families, so they were forced to live in slums area. The emergence of slum
areas is an indication of the failure of housing programs that are too
supportive of home production for middle- and upper-class societies, and the
priority of housing programs in private owned houses and ignoring the potential
of rental houses.  

The slums can lead
to various impacts. The slums may cause social and economic problems as a
result of the emergence of pockets of poverty in urban areas. The social
impact, in which some slum communities are low-income people with lower-middle
economic capability, is regarded as a source of disorder and non-compliance
with social norms. This area is often seen as potentially causing many urban
problems, as it can be the source of the emergence of various deviant
behaviors, such as crime, and other sources of social diseases.

b.      Issues

Poverty is one of
the social problems in Indonesia that is not solved yet. Poverty causes the
emergence of poor settlements in the city. The most common problems about the
poor settlements are the low quality of the environment that is considered a
part of the city that must be removed. The direct impact of slum settlement in
spatial condition is the decrease of physical and social environment quality of
settlement resulting in the lower of environmental quality as residence.  Almost all residents in the slums have
similarities, especially in terms of low socioeconomic background, low
education, minimum skills and abilities. The minimum condition of the quality
of life resulted in the increasing number of deviations of dweller’s
inhabitants. Many dwellers with deviant behavior come from slums area
such as pickpockets, thieves, beggars, ragpicker and so forth.  Indeed there are some residents who work in
various informal sectors such as street vendors, builders, parking ranger and
so forth.

Various efforts
and programs are applied to overcome these problems, but still many we meet the
poor settlements in almost every corner of the city in Indonesia. One way is to
provide skills training so that they can work with these skills to make money
and move out of the slums. Another way is to improve the infrastructure in the
slums such as water supply, sanitation, garbage disposal, wastewater management
and environmental roads. Infrastructure upgrading are intended to make the
lives of people living in the slum areas better, avoiding infectious diseases
that could endanger the urban citizen in general. The
fundamental issue in urban development and slum upgrading is related to the
growing number of urban residents and how housing and infrastructure services can
be financed for the future urban generations.  Slum areas have become one of the issues that
have received national and international attention. Various policies have been
taken both nationally and internationally to address the problems arising from
the slums.

c.       Concept

Poverty is one of the causes of the emergence of slums
in urban areas. Basically poverty can be overcome with high economic growth and
equity, increased employment and the income of the poor and the improvement of
basic services for the poor and the development of poverty reduction
institutions. Improvement of basic services can be realized by increasing water
supply, sanitation, provision and improvement of housing and residential environment
in general.

 

 

 

 

 

 

d.      Strategy

·        
Environmental Assessment on infrastructure
development

In improving the infrastructure of slum areas, it is
necessary to consider many things in order to solve the problems in the slums
and not create new problems. One of the most important thing to consider is
regarding the environmental condition. Development in slum area should apply Environmental
Assessment (EA), it is evident that some problems still persist in the other
slum where EA was not considered, the EA process was considered in designing
and locating infrastructure. EA as a tool is applied into project design and
execution. EA is essential in the development process in terms of identifying
the impact of the development on the environment. EA process consist of 3
stages, preliminary assessment, detail assessment, and the follow up. Preliminary
assessment includes ‘screening’ to establish whether detailed environmental
assessment is required and ‘scoping’ to identify the key issues and impacts
that need to be addressed and prepare the terms of reference for environmental
assessment. The detailed assessment includes impact analysis to (a) identify,
predict and evaluate the potential significance of effects and consequences,
and (b) identify mitigating measures to minimize, prevent or offset the
impacts. This stage also includes documentation of environmental assessment
results, decision making or approval of the proposal. Finally, the follow up
stage includes monitoring to check if interventions comply with the EA terms
and conditions (Jahan & Amin, 2006). Essential
legislation requiring an EA is the key and foremost component for integration
of EA into slum improvement program.

·        
Government Policies

The handling of slum settlement problems in Indonesia
is undertaken in several policies from the national, provincial to district /
city levels. According to Law No.1 Year 2011 on Housing and Settlement Area, the
government has a role in overcoming various problems related to slums. In
Article 16, the government facilitates quality improvement of slum housing and
slum settlements. In this case, the role is delegated to the provincial and
municipal governments. In accordance with article 17, the provincial government
plays a role in facilitating quality upgrading of slums housing and slums
settlement at the provincial level, and furthermore in article 18 the district
/ city government plays a role in facilitating quality improvement of slums
housing and slums settlement at the district / city level, determine the
location of housing and settlements as slum housing and slums settlements at
the district / city level. In the level of central government in Indonesia on
year 2014, Bappenas has released a national program on the Handling of Slum
Settlements in 2015-2019 derived from the Slum Allocation Policy and Action
Plan (Sapola) policy review conducted in 2013. The general objective of the
program is to develop effective national policies and strategies for the
reduction and improvement of slum areas in Indonesia. While the specific
objective is to establish a clear division of roles and responsibilities
between central and local governments, and to establish policies and programs
to achieve the goals of cities without slums and decent homes for all urban
residents in Indonesia. The scope of the Sapola program consists of 5 (1) a
review of policies and slum handling programs, (2) data and criteria for slum
handling, (3) local government conditions and institutional capacity, (4) the
role of NGOs and microfinance housing, (5) land for housing (Ir. Hery Budiyanto, MSA, 2014).

Another national government program to overcome slums
problem is KOTAKU (Kota Tanpa Kumuh/Slums Free City). The KOTAKU program is one
of the strategic efforts of the Directorate General of Human Settlements to
accelerate the handling of slum settlements and support the “100-0-100
Movement”, which is 100 percent universal access to drinking water, 0
percent slum settlements and 100 percent access to proper sanitation. The
overall objective of the program is to increase access to basic urban slum
infrastructure and services to support the realization of viable, productive and
sustainable urban settlements. This program is realized by improving
infrastructure such as drainage, clean water, waste management, wastewater management,
and public open space. KOTAKU will deal with slums by building collaborative
platforms through enhancing the role of local government and community roles. These
slum handling activities include infrastructure development as well as social
and economic assistance for sustainable livelihoods of better communities in
slums (Settlements, 2016).

 

 

·        
Community Participation in
infrastructure upgrading

 

 

 

SDG international tujuan 6

 

Policy untuk air

Cipta 
karya rpjm

Renstra cipta karya

 

2.      Existing
Condition (secondary data)

3.      Conclusion
(comparison between theory and existing condition)

4.      References

 

Ir. Hery Budiyanto, MSA, P. (2014). Mengatasi Masalah
Permukiman Kumuh di Perkotaan.

Jahan, F., & Amin, A. T. M. N. (2006). Environmental
assessment in slum improvement programs?: Some evidence from a study on
infrastructure projects in two Dhaka slums, 26, 530–552.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2005.11.004

Settlements, D. G. of H. (2016). Tentang Program Kota Tanpa
Kumuh (KOTAKU). Retrieved from
http://kotaku.pu.go.id/web_kotaku/public/page/6880/tentang-program-kota-tanpa-kumuh-kotaku

ada beberapa hal yang

dapat dilakukan pemerintah
untuk mencegah pertumbuhan permukiman kumuh baru

yaitu:

1. a. Kepastian bermukim (Secure Tenure).Hak atas tanah adalah hak
individu

atau kelompok untuk
menghuni atau menggunakan sebidang tanah. Hak atas

tanah dapat berupa hak
milik atau hak sewa. Kejelasan hak atas tanah

memberikan keyakinan akan
masa depan – rasa aman karena kejelasan hak

(sewa ataupun milik) akan
meningkatkan kestabilan jangka panjang dan

mengakibatkan penghuni
berkeinginan berinvestasi untuk peningkatan kualitas

rumah dan lingkungan
mereka. Perbaikan secara bertahap oleh masyarakat

dapat meningkatkan kualitas
komunitas. Perlu ada kerangka kerja yang jelas

tentang kepastian bermukim.
Seringkali masyarakat permukiman kumuh

menghadapi berbagai
hambatan untuk memiliki atau memperoleh kejelasan hak

atas tanah dan hak atas
hunian yang layak. Pasar tanah pada umumnya agak

disfungsional dan peraturan
yang ada menyulitkan pemerintah daerah untuk

mencari tanah terjangkau
dan berada di lokasi yang strategis bagi penghuni

permukiman kumuh yang
padat. Pengendalian tanah seringkali terkait dengan

kekuatan politik dan
korupsi, sehingga menyulitkan memperoleh informasi

tentang penguasaan dan
kepemilikan tanah, penggunaan dan ketersediaan

tanah.

2. b. Mendapatkan hak segabai warga kota. Masyarakat yang tinggal di

permukiman kumuh adalah
bagian dari penduduk perkotaan, dan seharusnya

mempunyai hak yang sama
atas kesehatan dan pelayanan dasar kota. Hak ini

seringkali dibatasi oleh
kemampuan pemerintah dalam mewujudkan pelayanan

dasar ini. Proses
merealisasi hak penghuni permukiman kumuh tergantung

pada kapasitas mereka untuk
berinteraksi dengan pemerintah. Salah satu kunci

adalah menciptakan ‘ruang’
dimana masyarakat permukiman kumuh dan

pemerintah dapat saling
berdialog tentang peluang-peluang meningkatkan

komunitas permukiman kumuh.
Melalui dialog, setiap pihak dapat meletakkan

hak dan tanggung jawab,
serta merancang program peningkatan permukiman

kumuh yang lebih responsif
terhadap kebutuhan masyarakat. Apabila proses ini

tidak dipahami oleh
masyarakat dan pemerintah, maka akan sulit program ini

berhasil.