return the returns that would have been gained

return on investment (ROI)?The amount
or ratio of money
gained through a particular action or investment that had a
cost attached to it. For example the advertising industry exists to increase
sales of their clients’ products and services. However
advertising agencies themselves cost money to employ, so the returns that come as a
direct result of the advertising campaign (that is, over and above the returns
that would have been gained in the absence of the campaign) must exceed the
cost of employing the advertising agency if the company using the agency is to
create a positive return on investment. Purchasing a new machine that would
speed up a manufacturing process or make it more efficient should also provide
a positive return on investment by paying for itself and increasing profits
thereafter. To determine whether an individual action (in a business that is
regularly performing many diverse actions) has created a positive return is
difficult or sometimes impossible to calculate accurately as it involves
isolating the specific element and discounting the effects of the others, which
may be interlinked.

revelation?Literally,
the noun form of ‘reveal’, but in the religious context revelation means the
word of God being
revealed to an individual (in Islam, the Prophet Muhammad and earlier prophets),
often via an angel.
The Qur’an is believed by Muslims to be the result of a number of revelations
to Muhammad over several years.

riba?Usury, or interest. One of the
key prohibitions in Islam,
a fact that influences the whole of the Islamic finance industry, along with the
forbidding of gambling and dealing with haram (forbidden) items. Riba does not
have to be a financial kind of interest. It can be the unequal exchange of commodities
or a charge when no service has been provided. The justifications for the
forbidding of riba are manifold. For example, it is seen as a way of reducing
social equity; the lender will necessarily be rich enough to have disposable
wealth and the borrower will always be poorer, so the net flow of wealth where
riba is allowed will always be away from the poor and towards the wealthy,
which over time and over large populations magnifies. Although it could be argued
that borrowing to invest in one’s own future prosperity (for example, to buy
land to farm or to start a business) is considered a disincentive to enterprise
as the repayment to the lender is a definite amount but the returns from an
investment are not. Some new businesses, for example cultivating olive trees,
might take several years to literally bear fruit, whereas the loan and the
interest might be repayable within one year. Because of the tendency to lend
only to those who are already wealthy enough to be considered safe investments
(nowadays with the help of credit
rating agencies), poorer people can effectively have no access to
the credit that could help them, and interest repayments only compound this
problem.