Scotland CfE was created with the intention of


Scotland is a country which increasingly places great
emphasis and value on the importance of an education system that strives to
create a meritocratic social system and strong democracy (Devine, 1999). The
success of the education system and the children in it depends immensely on
external factors like teachers, parents, communities and policies. In 2004 the
Scottish education system was overhauled with the introduction of ‘The
Curriculum for Excellence’ (CfE) (Scottish Government, 2004) a new curriculum
designed to meet the needs and abilities of all children through a more
enriched system. The CfE was created with the intention of developing learners
into confident individuals, successful learners, responsible citizens and
effective contributors; also known as ‘the 4 capacities of the CfE’. A main
development within the new curriculum is the movement away from a system based
upon standardised testing and towards a more flexible and varied curriculum
which takes the needs, abilities and levels of all learners into account
(Priestly, 2013). As well as the development of a new curriculum Scotland has
also seen an array of policy changes and implementations. Many administrations
from previous Labour and current SNP parties have produced polices committed to
inclusion, social justice and equality. For example, in 2007 Skills Strategy
(Scottish Government, 2007) was created with one of its major objectives to
ensure equal opportunity and participation for everyone from all social
economical backgrounds. Not everyone is convinced that Scotland is the
egalitarian society many paint it as, this is a point that is argued throughout
Mooney and Scott (2005), however, with the majority of recent policies designed
to see inclusion at the heart of education, Scotland’s efforts and intentions
cannot be argued.

Scotland’s adherence for inclusion
has been further established by an extensive list of legislation which includes
Statutory Guidance: Standards in Scotland’s Schools etc. Act 2000 (Scottish
Government, 2000). Act 2000 seen that all learners would be taught in
mainstream school unless under special circumstances. The circumstances that
would lead to learners being placed in special provisions are ones that would
see a high financial expectation from the government, was against the parents wishes
or if the learners attendance within a mainstream school would be detrimental
to other learners education or the education of themselves. in 2001, the
extension of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 was furthered to also
include education resulting in schools and local authorities responsibility to
make reasonable adjustments for disabilities as well as insuring the equal
treatment for learners with disabilities. Local authorities were also obliged by
Scottish legislation to make and present accessibility strategies in order to
record the progress of the creation of inclusive environments. However, the
legislation wasn’t explicit resulting in auxiliary aids and services being
exempt and thus creating no legal obligation for resources or additional personnel
by local authorities which diminished the potential for redistribution
(Riddell, 2006). Taking into account the increasingly wide range of support
required by many individuals, The Additional Support for learning Act 2004 (Scottish
Government, 2004) saw the broadening of support available and saw a shift in
the definition of additional support needs (ASN). It also insures local authorities
have a duty of care to identify and monitor learners needs and requirements. The introduction of Act
2004 also resulted in the term ASN replacing special education needs (SEN). It
has been stated that this change in the use of terminology transformed the
education system for learners with ASN (McKay & McLarty, 2008). The big
difference between the two terminologies was that SEN regarded specific
physical or intellectual conditions whilst ASN refers to various issues that
could affect a learner. Additionally ASN also identified with a varied range of
alternative components that SEN didn’t consider resulting in learners with home
issues, low self-esteem and many more 
falling under the ASN category and therefore issuing them with the extra
attention that they previously didn’t get under SEN which ensured that these
learners had the same access towards experiences and outcomes as everyone else.
(Galbraith, 2015).      

In 2007 the Scottish education
system saw the introduction of The National Framework for Inclusion (Scottish
Government, 2007). This framework’s intention was to ensure the support and
guidance of all learners and practitioners for the entirety of their careers or