The Holocaust consisted of 4 main stages between 1933-1945 and resulted in the murder of millions of Jews. The four stages were discrimination/persecution, expropriating Jewish business, ghettoization, and the Final solution (extermination). The discrimination/persecution stage took place from 1933-1939. In 1933, books by Jews or anti-Nazis got publicly burned, there were random attacks on Jews and Jewish property, Police and courts no longer protected Jews, Jews started to boycott Jewish shops, and ‘Kosher’ the ritual slaughter of animals was banned. In 1935-1936, Jews could no longer vote, benefit payments to large Jewish families ended, Jews became banned from parks, restaurants, and swimming pools. Jews became forbidden from using ‘Heil Hitler’ greeting, they were no longer allowed electrical/optical equipment, bikes, typewriters or records, Jewish passports were restricted, and many Jews got removed from German schools and Universities. On September 15, 1935, the Nazi government used their political power to make a set of laws called the Nuremberg Laws. The main idea of the set of laws was to protect the German blood and German Honor. These laws took away many rights from Jews, such as Jews couldn’t marry Germans, they could not display the National Flag or the Reich colors, they could not have intercourse with Germans, and they couldn’t have servants. If any of these laws was broken, Jews were punished with, jail sentences with hard labor and fines. In 1938, Special identity cards got issued to Jews; Jews became excluded from theatres, concerts, museums, beaches and holiday resorts. They also had to add Sarah or Israel to their names, Kristallnacht occurred, Jewish children became expelled from German schools, their passports got stamped with a red ‘J,’ and some even were revoked. The following stage was the expropriation of Jewish Businesses. Kristallnacht also was known as the “Night of Broken Glass” occurred on November 9, 1938. German and Austrian Jews got murdered, synagogues were burnt, and desecrated, shop windows of Jews got destroyed, and thousands of Jews got arrested. The following stage was the expropriation of Jewish businesses. This occurred after Kristallnacht because in the message from General Heydrich regarding Kristallnacht he told those destroying Jewish businesses not to loot any of the property. After the “Night of Broken Glass” German officials were allowed to loot the property of Jewish Business. The following stage was, ghettoization, this stage began in October 1939, when the first ghetto was established in Poland. The main goal of the ghettos was to segregate Jews from the rest of the population. Some ghettos were to be temporary, and others were meant to last for an extended period. Many inhabitants of the ghettos died from disease or starvation, were shot, or deported. Jews in the ghettos were ordered to wear identifying badges or armbands. They were also ordered to carry out labor for the German Reich. The final stage of the holocaust was the “Final Solution.” On July 31, 1941, Hermann Goring wrote an order to Reinhard Heydrich, ordering for him to start organizing the ‘Jewish Problem,’ by bringing relevant people together for the Wannsee Conference, January 20, 1942. There was a need for a new directive in the summer of 1941 because there were too many Jews for ghettos. As part of the “Final Solution,” the Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squad) had the job of exterminating Jews in the Soviet Union and Lithuania. They were very effective and killed about 1.3 million (¼) of the Jews killed in the Holocaust. Starting from December 31, 1942, no people of Jewish origin were allowed to remain within the Government-General, unless they were in collection camps in Warsaw, Cracow, Cz?stochowa, Radom, and Lublin. All Jews who were working for the German Reich had to be finished by December 31, and if the work wasn’t completed, it was to be transferred to one of the collection camps. These measures were required to the necessary ethnic division of races and people of the New Order in Europe and also in the interest of the security and cleanliness of the German Reich and its ‘sphere of interest’. For these reasons a complete cleansing was needed and was to be carried out. All Jews in Warsaw were resettled in the East; however, some people were excluded. You were excluded if you worked for the government, Jewish police, a German company or the Judenrat. If you worked in a Jewish hospital, or on a Jewish Disinfectant team, and were in a hospital and couldn’t be discharged, you were excluded as well. Any Jew being resettled was allowed 15 kgs of his property, any valuables such as gold, jewelry, money could be taken, and food could be taken for three days. Resettlement began on July 22, 1942, and 11 o’clock. Concentration/extermination camps were established to carry out the ‘Final Solution.’ The following are the names of some concentration camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Dachau, Sobibor, and Treblinka. Auschwitz-Birkenau is the most well known camp and it is estimated that 1.1 million people were killed by camp officials. In Belzec, its estimated that 434,500 people died. At Chelmno, at least 152,000 people died. Between 870,000 and 925,000 Jews died at Treblinka. At least 167,000 people perished at Sobibor. It is estimated that 10 million people died as a result of the Holocaust, and if you survived you were considered lucky. The international community has failed to respond and prevent genocide for many reasons. The international community has made the promise of “Never Again” after each genocide and has yet to fulfill the promise. The U.N. has failed to intervene with the genocide in Darfur because China is a primary member of the U.N. Security Council and they have the power to veto any intervention effort made by the United Nations. China would veto any intervention effort made because they get all of their oil from Sudan. China is enabling the genocide and is funding it because Darfur is getting weapons, technology, and cash in exchange for oil. The international community failed to intervene with Holocaust because most of the nations who could help would not accept refugees or had limitations on the ones they could accept. They talked about this at The Evian Conference in July 1938. The following countries responded to the refugees they accepted differently: Australia didn’t want to import a racial problem, Peru didn’t want doctors or lawyers, Argentina couldn’t take large amounts of people, Canada only wanted Agricultural migrants, Nicaragua/Costa Rica/Honduras/Panama, couldn’t accept traders or intellectuals. Denmark was already too heavily populated, and their citizens were leaving, and the United States accepted 27,370 migrants. There were only three places Migrants could go, and they were Denmark, Holland, and the United States. Jews faced many obstacles by going to the United States. It was the Great Depression, and there were no jobs. In 1939, there was a bill introduced that would grant permission for 20,000 German children under the age of 14, to come to the United States. “The Voyage of the St. Louis” was a boat with a bunch of Jewish refugees that were heading for Cuba, but by the time the boat arrived, Cuba had invalidated the visas of all the Jews. The American Joint Distribution Committee tried to find a place that would accept the 900 Jews on board, but they received discouraging replies from Colombia, Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina. On June 5, Cuba told the JDC that it $453,000 was deposited within twenty-four hours they would accept the Jews, it was a deadline the JDC couldn’t reach. As the ship left Cuba, they sailed along the Florida Coast, and the Miami U.S. Coast Guard is patrolling the waters to make sure nobody jumped for freedom. The world continues to fail to keep their promise of “Never Again” with every Genocide that happens because every country puts their interests above the innocent lives of the people being affected. Elie Wiesel once said “one person of integrity can make a difference” many people and groups tried to make a difference through rescue and resistance efforts and by informing the world of what was happening in the certain genocide they engaged in. The Bielski Brothers (Tuvia, Asael, Zeus)/Jewish Partisans played a major role in the resistance of the Holocaust. They operated in Belorussia, their main goal was to provide a “haven” for the people who managed to escape into the forests, especially women, children, and elders, but ultimately had to stand their ground numerous times against the Nazi army. The Bielski Brothers actions helped more than 1,200 Jews survive, and was one of the most successful resistance efforts made. Their actions allowed for those who they saved to return to the most normal life they possibly could. The brothers viewed their role in trying to make a difference as very important and successful because they halted the inhumane acts of the Nazis. The heroic efforts of the Brothers made into a movie called Defiance. In 2004, was invited to serve as an unarmed military observer and US representative to the African Union. Steidle and his force had the task of investigating and reporting on the breakage of the ceasefire between rebels and the Sudanese government. While on his mission, Steidle witnessed systematic attacks led by the main perpetrators the Janjaweed, who are supported by the Sudanese government. Steidle was not mandated to protect the innocent lives being obliterated but rather to witness the killings and report them. Steidle’s main goal was to get the world to intervene and recognize the inhumane acts of genocide. He strived to accomplish this goal by writing his mandated reports and by taking pictures. Steidle decided to leave Darfur after six months because he was mentally and emotionally overwhelmed with not being able to protect the innocent citizens getting attacked. When Steidle left, he collected everything he could get his hands on so he could release all the evidence of genocide, to the world to make people feel bad for their inaction. Steidle certainly accomplished his goal of getting the world to recognize these attacks as genocide because in June of 2004 the United States Congress recognized the acts of the state-sponsored Janjaweed as genocide. Steidle tried to make a difference by releasing showing all of his evidence to his family, and then later went to Nick Kristof of the New York Times who published his pictures and wrote articles about the genocide which are titled “The American Witness” and “A president, a Boy, and Genocide.” Steidle views his role in raising awareness as unsuccessful because he didn’t get any military intervention from the United Nations or even more depressingly the United States, who assigned him to his mission in Sudan.There was a multitude of things that I have learned this semester and will keep with me throughout life, and I hope to make a difference with them. One of these things were the images that Brian Steidle took while he was in Darfur. I will never forget these pictures because they showed the unnecessary destruction of villages that killed many people, and they also explained how he was a bright spot for some of the victims that did not include parish but their families. The movie Defiance was another aspect of the class that I will never forget. I enjoyed the movie because it showed that just because you and your family is going through a rough time, a person or a group of people going through the same thing can rally together and put an end to such a difficult time. Lastly, The Pianist was another great movie we watched in class. This film showed that all you need is determination, and perseverance to survive through a rough. Wladyslaw Szpilman was saved by a friend and persevered through the Holocaust without knowing where or how his family was. There were numerous time Szpilman thought about suicide and his determination to play the piano again, kept him from killing himself and allowed him to chase his dream. The things I learned in this semester can be used not only to prevent or stop genocide from occurring but can also be used to help people can through rough times in life.