The separate hospitals. When the boy is wheeled

The economy is gender-biased the economy cannot operate at its full potential with hurdles for half of the world’s population. Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right but also a critical economic opportunity. A father and son are badly hurt in a car crash. They are taken to separate hospitals. When the boy is wheeled into the operating theatre the surgeon says: “I can’t perform this operation – that’s my son.” It’s remarkable how many people are conditioned to overlook the correct and, in many ways, blindingly obvious answer: the surgeon is the boy’s mother. Globally, women continue to be highly overrepresented in clerical, service, and professional occupations. Meanwhile, men tend to be overrepresented in trades, increasingly in positions of plant and machine operator and assembler jobs. Stereotypes shape our expectations about whether a man or a woman is a better “fit” for a given job. They are powerful because they can bias a whole host of employment outcomes. Stereotypical behavior is not a new trend. Occupational Segregation Contributes to Gender Inequality Women’s Share in Male-Dominated Canadian Industries Construction include the following; 11.7%, Forestry and Logging 17.7%, Mining, Quarrying and oil and gas extraction 20.0%. CANSIM (2017).  Men are two to three times more likely to be in a senior management position than are women. Women hold 34.8% of all management positions and 37.1% of all senior management positions.  Data Table (2017). The statistics reinforce that this is an extensive rooting problem. Fifty years ago, the most typical female career was as a secretary. That still holds true today. Women are never actually told that construction, or related trade jobs, are right for them Female welders: 4.8 percent ,Electricians: 2.4 percent, Carpenters: 1.7 percent,Plumbers: 1.6 percent, HVAC technicians: 1.2 percent. (“Women in Skilled Trades-In High Demand.”, a.n.d. ) Sexism is the number one obstacle for women in trades to overcome. Women are undermined in hands-on-fields as well as white-collar jobs. Women outnumbered men in higher educational attainment. However, men and women’s labor market outcomes remain substantially different. According to Eleanor Tabi (2012) Women MBA’s are more likely to be hired at a lower level , fewer promotions and less equity compensation than that of a man with the same masters. For instance, there is a persistent gender pay gap that starts right after graduation. The figures showed that men were more likely to have higher pay than women who graduated in the same year with degrees in the same subjects, with the sole exception of English – the only subject where women graduates outdid their male peers five years after leaving university. Even in nursing, a course dominated by female students, men were still learning about £2,000 more just a year after graduation. (Adams, R. 2017). Compare the annual earnings of full-time workers. On this basis, female workers in Canada earned an average of 74 cents for every dollar earned by men in 2014 (“Distribution of employment income of individuals by sex and work activity”) 2014. The significant wage gap is contributing to keeping females bound to lower paying jobs. Women now hold a paltry 4.2% of CEO positions in America’s 500 largest companies. (Valentina Zarya 2016). The underrepresentation of women in influential jobs suppresses women’s opportunities and voices within the sea of men. The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that not only is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up levels of authority hierarchies within workplaces but also that the obstacles women face relative to men become greater as they move up the hierarchy. Cansu (Akpinar 2012). Perceptions of gender identification are related to perceived gender discrimination. The ‘glass ceiling’ is a term which symbolizes a variety of barriers faced by women and by minorities as they seek to improve their employment status. Many studies confirmed the glass ceiling hypothesis and indicated that women in their early lives experienced a number of barriers during their decision of their career path (Phillips & Imhoff, 1997); and also invisible barriers, which continued to prevent them from moving up to a higher position in organizations.