Water to the prevailing drought condition and increased

 

Water
is a precious natural national resource with almost fixed quantum of
availability. Most water (96.5%) is in the oceans, which cover 71% of the
Earth’s surface. 3% is freshwater,      two-thirds
of which is tied up as ice in glaciers and at the poles. This leaves
approximately 1% as freshwater in rivers, lakes, atmosphere and groundwater. One
billion people lack sufficient water for domestic consumption in the world
today, and it is estimated that, in 30 years, 5.5 billion people will be living
in areas with moderate to serious water shortages. It clearly shows the
scarcity of the fresh water, fresh water is a renewable resource but there are
some unclear how much natural renewal balance for the usage. Water usage
includes environmental, industrial, household and agricultural activities.
Human’s all living things depend on water. Continuous ground water decreasing occurs
specially in Asia and America, it is a popular issue in the current situation
therefore human should consider about the sustainable water resource management
as a crucial thing.

Srilankan is a developing country; here
urban area’s population and industries are more than rural areas, therefore
water usage also higher in urban areas. Currently urbanized planning requires
high need of water than earlier. Water scarcity creates water as an economical
good so that water supply system charge price for water. Now a days water is not
enough to fulfill the consumers requirement because of higher demand and less
availability of existing water.  Sri
Lanka’s Water Supply and Drainage Board has decided to limit its pump water
supply in the island due to the prevailing drought condition and increased consumption.
Colombo city and suburban areas of Colombo District water requirement fulfill
by Ambatale Water Treatment Plant, it is the main plant with high capacity .The
Water Board currently supplies bowser water even to non-consumers in 16
districts suffering from drought as requested by the Disaster Management
Authority.

Water
usage management means the challenges and solutions of water resource that
means ability to maximum utilize without any degrading action. Effective water
usage management consists of the technological choices and economic balance in
protecting water quantity and water quality.

Most
of the people don’t have adequate knowledge to efficient use of water;
therefore we need to raise public awareness for this. In order to set up and
achieve relevant and realistic targets we will need to invest time and
resources in careful planning, organization, training and follow-up. The first
step to take when creating a water management plan is to start measuring water
consumption and set some tangible targets. It’s vital to know your start point
and find out how much water you are currently using. Proper measurements are
helped to understand the real problem and the better understanding helps to
solve the problem improve the system.

 

 

 

As
well as understanding measurement and target setting knows water costs.
Therefore, water usage management is important because it provides decision
making tools to the concerned people in the utility, institutions or households
by identifying inefficient uses, problem areas wherein water conservation and
remedial measures can be undertaken.

 

Water
usage management is “systematic approach of identifying, measuring, monitoring
and reducing water consumption by various activities in industry or institution
or building”. It is an effective management tool for minimizing losses,
optimizing various uses and thus enabling considerable conservation of water
not in irrigation sector alone but in other sectors of water use such as
domestic, power and industrial as well. Water usage determines the amount of
water lost from a distribution system due to leakage and other reasons such as
theft, unauthorized or illegal withdrawals from the systems and the cost of
such losses to the utility. Comprehensive water usage management gives a
detailed profile of the distribution system and water users, thereby
facilitating easier and effective management of the resources with improved
reliability. It helps in correct diagnosis of the problems faced in order to
suggest optimum solutions. It is also an effective tool for realistic
understanding and assessment of the present performance level and efficiency of
the service and the adaptability of the system for future expansion &
rectification of faults during modernization. Elements of water usage
management include a record of the amount of water issued, consumption of
water, water loss and suggested measures to address water loss.

The
study mainly focus on identifying the water consumption in university of Sri Jayewardenepura
boys hostel and analyses the water usage management to avoid water wastage and
ensure the efficient usage of water. University is mainly concern about water budget;
Hostels are the major water consumption points in university. We should ensure
the efficient usage. This water audit is a one step to help, be a Green
University.