With the development of urbanization and industrialization, Mexico’s ecological environment and natural resources have been increasingly polluted and destroyed. Therefore, the Mexican government has conducted a long-term comprehensive management of the ecological environment on which people depend and its legislation protects natural resources and the environment, thus promoting the sustainable development of the national economy.
Since the 1960s, the consequences of urbanization and industrialization have brought Mexican natural resources and ecological environment to the fore. The World Health Organization environmental report released in the 1990s listed Mexico City as one of the cities with the most air pollution in the world. The Mexican government has also issued a report that states that 70% of Mexico’s entire country and the marine environment are being destroyed. The economic losses each year due to the deterioration of the ecological environment are as high as 67 billion U.S. dollars.
Since the late 1980s, the Mexican government started to tackle pollution problems such as air and water resources, which are closely related to the life of residents. The government has successively formulated the “Law on Ecological Balance and Environmental Protection” and implemented the “Anti-Pollution Master Plan” to implement the policy of “shutting down, demolishing, relocating and restricting the discharge of industrial wastes and waste water to factories and factories that cause serious pollution to urban air and water resources Mandatory measures, while violating environmental laws and regulations of personnel and institutions to impose strict legal sanctions. The government also set up a special environmental protection procuratorate, responsible for inspecting, supervising and handling industrial and service violations of environmental protection law cases.
In order to reduce the harmful exhaust emitted by vehicles, the Mexican government is actively implementing the “Stoppages for Today” program to reduce the air pollution caused by private cars. Relevant departments require that all vehicles conduct a sewerage inspection every six months and strictly prohibit the vehicles with excessive sewage from going to the streets and improve the fuel quality nationwide to achieve lead-free gasoline. The government also stipulates that automakers must install purifiers for new cars and introduce public transport using natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas.
In addition, the Mexican government through the construction of a new subway line in the capital, to ease the pressure on the ground transportation, while effectively reducing the air pollution caused by heavy surface traffic. Currently, Mexico City, a total of 11 dual-track subway, forming a criss-cross the underground passenger network, a total length of 202 km, average daily passenger traffic of about 5 million passengers.
The Mexican government relies on improving legislation and has gradually established a unified management system for water resources and a state-level decentralized management body. Last year, the “National Development Plan” was formulated to raise the importance of protecting water resources to a strategic height of national security. The government and enterprises signed a “self-regulation agreement” for protecting water resources, requiring each enterprise to conscientiously control sewerage and increase water recycling. In particular, those who overexploit water sources and big water users should charge high water fees to punish waste water.
The Mexican government also worked with scientific research departments to address the issue of ground subsidence that threatens the historic buildings in the city center due to over-exploitation of groundwater. Over the past two years, various types of investments directly used to build reservoirs, dams and other water conservancy facilities have totaled more than 900 million U.S. dollars. According to the “National Water Resources Planning Plan for 2001 to 2020” formulated by the government, in 20 years, the government will invest more in reservoirs to ensure that there will be no serious water crisis in the next few decades.
n terms of energy strategy, the Mexican government emphasizes the three aspects of energy conservation, energy efficiency and development and utilization of renewable energy. It should rely on the participation of the whole society and the rational and scientific use of energy to achieve a balance between energy supply and demand.
Sufficient sunshine in Mexico, with abundant wind and geothermal resources, provides a rare and favorable condition for the development and utilization of renewable energy. Mexico is second only to Brazil, Latin America’s second largest economy, the second largest population among Latin American countries, the country every day to abandon a large amount of garbage. It is estimated that if these rubbish is used to generate electricity, it will generate 150 million kilowatts per year. This will not only provide the energy needed for economic development, but also to a certain extent solve the problem of garbage pollution of the environment.